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2
Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
The next decade will be an exciting period for solar astrophysics, as new ground- and space-based instrumentation will provide unprecedented observations of the solar atmosphere and heliosphere. The synergy between modeling effort and comprehensive analysis of observations is crucial for the understanding of the physical processes behind the observed phenomena. However, the unprecedented wealth of data on one hand, and the complexity of the physical phenomena on the other, require the development of new approaches in both data analysis and numerical modeling. In this white paper, we summarize recent numerical achievements to reproduce structure, dynamics, and observed phenomena from the photosphere to the low corona and outline challenges we expect to face for the interpretation of future observations.
Paper
14
Date Added: Oct 21, 2021
Date Added: Oct 21, 2021
Einstein's theory of general relativity states that clocks at different gravitational potentials tick at different rates - an effect known as the gravitational redshift. As fundamental probes of space and time, atomic clocks have long served to test this prediction at distance scales from 30 centimeters to thousands of kilometers. Ultimately, clocks will study the union of general relativity and quantum mechanics once they become sensitive to the finite wavefunction of quantum objects oscillating in curved spacetime. Towards this regime, we measure a linear frequency gradient consistent with the gravitational redshift within a single millimeter scale sample of ultracold strontium. Our result is enabled by improving the fractional frequency measurement uncertainty by more than a factor of 10, now reaching 7.6$\times 10^{-21}$. This heralds a new regime of clock operation necessitating intra-sample corrections for gravitational perturbations.
6
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Hey, I wanted to share some interactive and useful 3D maps that show different satellites and debris orbiting the Earth. Was fascinated when I first found one, and am now dropping here for all of us to play around with them. Here is the Astria Graph of objects around Earth, from The University of Texas at Austin.This is the Satellite Map by esri.Stuff In Space is another brilliant 3D map that's not associated with any organization as far as I've read.
6
Date Added: Nov 2, 2021
Date Added: Nov 2, 2021
Low-gravity environment can have a profound impact on the behaviors of biological systems, the dynamics of fluids, and the growth of materials. Systematic research on the effects of gravity is crucial for advancing our knowledge and for the success of space missions. Due to the high cost and the limitations in the payload size and mass in typical spaceflight missions, ground-based low-gravity simulators have become indispensable for preparing spaceflight experiments and for serving as stand-alone research platforms. Among various simulator systems, the magnetic levitation-based simulator (MLS) has received long-lasting interest due to its easily adjustable gravity and practically unlimited operation time. However, a recognized issue with MLSs is their highly non-uniform force field. For a solenoid MLS, the functional volume V1%, where the net force results in an acceleration <1% of the Earth’s gravity g, is typically a few microliters (μL) or less. In this work, we report an innovative MLS design that integrates a superconducting magnet with a gradient-field Maxwell coil. Through an optimization analysis, we show that an unprecedented V1% of over 4000 μL can be achieved in a compact coil with a diameter of 8 cm. We also discuss how such an MLS can be made using existing high-Tc-superconducting materials. When the current in this MLS is reduced to emulate the gravity on Mars (gM = 0.38g), a functional volume where the gravity varies within a few percent of gM can exceed 20,000 μL. Our design may break new ground for future low-gravity research.
3
Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
The isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) is known to break down in the first T = 2, A = 32 isospin quintet. In this work we combine high-resolution experimental data with state-of-the-art shell-model calculations to investigate isospin mixing as a possible cause for this violation. The experimental data are used to validate isospin-mixing matrix elements calculated with newly developed shell-model Hamiltonians. Our analysis shows that isospin mixing with nonanalog T = 1 states contributes to the IMME breakdown, making the requirement of an anomalous cubic term inevitable for the multiplet.
4
Date Added: Dec 15, 2021
Date Added: Dec 15, 2021
Discoveries of extended rotation curves have suggested the presence of dark matter in spiral galaxy haloes. It has led to many studies that estimated the galaxy total mass, mostly by using the Navarro Frenk and White (NFW) density profile. We aim at verifying how the choice of the dark-matter profile may affect the predicted values of extrapolated total masses. We have considered the recent Milky Way (MW) rotation curve, firstly because of its unprecedented accuracy, and secondly because the Galactic disk is amongst the least affected by past major mergers having fully reshaped the initial disk. We find that the use of NFW profile (or its generalized form, gNFW) for calculating the dark-matter contribution to the MW rotation curve generates apparently inconsistent results, e.g., an increase of the baryonic mass leads to increase of the dark matter mass. Furthermore we find that NFW and gNFW profile narrow the total mass range, leading to a possible methodological bias particularly against small MW masses. By using the Einasto profile that is more appropriate to represent cold dark matter haloes, we finally find that the Milky Way slightly decreasing rotation curve favors total mass that can be as small as 2.6 $\times 10^{11}$ $M_{\odot}$, disregarding any other dynamical tracers further out in the MW. It is inconsistent with values larger than 18 $\times 10^{11}$ $M_{\odot}$ for any kind of CDM dark-matter halo profiles, under the assumption that stars and gas do not influence the predicted dark matter distribution in the MW. This methodological paper encourages the use of the Einasto profile for characterizing rotation curves with the aim of evaluating their total masses.
2
Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
We perform consistent reductions and measurements for three ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs): Bo\"otes I, Leo IV and Leo V. Using the public archival data from the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we locate new members and provide refined measurements of physical parameters for these dwarf galaxies. We identify nine new Leo IV members and four new Leo V members, and perform a comparative analysis of previously discovered members. Additionally, we identify one new binary star in both Leo IV and Leo V. After removing binary stars, we recalculate the velocity dispersions of Bo\"otes I and Leo IV to be 5.1$^{+0.7}_{-0.8}$ and 3.4$^{+1.3}_{-0.9}$ km s$^{-1}$, respectively; We do not resolve the Leo V velocity dispersion. We identify a weak velocity gradient in Leo V that is $\sim$4$\times$ smaller than the previously calculated gradient and that has a corresponding position angle which differs from the literature value by $\sim$120 deg. Combining the VLT data with previous literature, we re-analyze the Bo\"otes I metallicity distribution function and find that a model including infall of pristine gas while Bo\"otes I was forming stars best fits the data. Our analysis of Leo IV, Leo V and other UFDs will enhance our understanding of these enigmatic stellar populations and contribute to future dark matter studies. This is the first in a series of papers examining thirteen UDFs observed with VLT/GIRAFFE between 2009 and 2017. Similar analyses of the remaining ten UFDs will be presented in forthcoming papers.
15
Date Added: Aug 5, 2021
Date Added: Aug 5, 2021
Determining the presence or absence of a past long-lived lunar magnetic field is crucial for understanding how the Moon’s interior and surface evolved. Here, we show that Apollo impact glass associated with a young 2 million–year–old crater records a strong Earth-like magnetization, providing evidence that impacts can impart intense signals to samples recovered from the Moon and other planetary bodies. Moreover, we show that silicate crystals bearing magnetic inclusions from Apollo samples formed at ∼3.9, 3.6, 3.3, and 3.2 billion years ago are capable of recording strong core dynamo–like fields but do not. Together, these data indicate that the Moon did not have a long-lived core dynamo. As a result, the Moon was not sheltered by a sustained paleomagnetosphere, and the lunar regolith should hold buried 3He, water, and other volatile resources acquired from solar winds and Earth’s magnetosphere over some 4 billion years. The Moon lacked a long-lived magnetic field of internal origin, and this allowed solar wind volatiles to accumulate in its soils. The Moon lacked a long-lived magnetic field of internal origin, and this allowed solar wind volatiles to accumulate in its soils.
Paper
3
Date Added: Oct 22, 2021
Date Added: Oct 22, 2021
The next decade will be an exciting period for solar astrophysics, as new ground- and space-based instrumentation will provide unprecedented observations of the solar atmosphere and heliosphere. The synergy between modeling effort and comprehensive analysis of observations is crucial for the understanding of the physical processes behind the observed phenomena. However, the unprecedented wealth of data on one hand, and the complexity of the physical phenomena on the other, require the development of new approaches in both data analysis and numerical modeling. In this white paper, we summarize recent numerical achievements to reproduce structure, dynamics, and observed phenomena from the photosphere to the low corona and outline challenges we expect to face for the interpretation of future observations.
35
Date Added: Jul 5, 2021
Date Added: Jul 5, 2021
Terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) are differentiated into three layers: a metallic core, a silicate shell (mantle and crust), and a volatile envelope of gases, ices, and, for the Earth, liquid water. Each layer has different dominant elements (e.g., increasing iron content with depth and increasing oxygen content to the surface). Chondrites, the building blocks of the terrestrial planets, have mass and atomic proportions of oxygen, iron, magnesium, and silicon totaling ≥ 90% and variable Mg/Si (∼ 25%), Fe/Si (factor of ≥2), and Fe/O (factor of ≥ 3). What remains an unknown is to what degree did physical processes during nebular disk accretion versus those during post-nebular disk accretion (e.g., impact erosion) influence these planets final bulk compositions. Here we predict terrestrial planet compositions and show that their core mass fractions and uncompressed densities correlate with their heliocentric distance, and follow a simple model of the magnetic field strength in the protoplanetary disk. Our model assesses the distribution of iron in terms of increasing oxidation state, aerodynamics, and a decreasing magnetic field strength outward from the Sun, leading to decreasing core size of the terrestrial planets with radial distance. This distribution enhances habitability in our solar system and may be equally applicable to exoplanetary systems.
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