To consider the catastrophic situation of our environment, this environment sends lot of alarming events for us, not limited to the following: global warming, climate change, and pollution. Green purchasing behavior is one of the behaviors recommended to help sustain the environment. Three factors (social influence, environmental attitude, and environmental concern) are tested to see how they affect green purchasing behavior. A significant result was indicated between Social influence, Environmental concern and green purchasing behavior. The results provided empirical support to previous studies. Future research and limitation were discussed as well.
Marine plants and animals should still be thriving in ocean waters, but they are not. We have lost 50% of all marine life over the last 70 years. The GOES team has used its collective professional and academic experience to undertake further analysis of the peer reviewed and published data to explore the less obvious reasons for this decline and its implications for climate and humanity. In our view, this loss of marine life is directly related to the drop ocean pH and the ‘chemical revolution’ which began in 1950, a decline which is continuing today at a rate of 1% year-on-year despite there being ideal conditions for growth. There is no doubt that it is the tiny ocean planktonic plants and animals that regulate our climate, but the planet’s largest ecosystem seems to be ignored as one of the tools to address climate change. Every second breath we take comes from marine photosynthesis, a process which also uses 60-90% of our carbon dioxide. If we have lost 50% of the very thing that regulates the climate, surely it is time to stop, take a fresh look at ocean chemistry and biodiversity and ask ourselves some fundamental questions: “Why have we lost this level of marine life? Why is the decline continuing? What does this mean for our climate and humanity? Of particular concern from a climate change perspective is the level of carbonic acid in the oceans, which is the result of atmospheric carbon dioxide being dissolved into the oceans. In the 1940’s pH was 8.2, but in 2020, pH had dropped to it 8.04, meaning the ocean is becoming more acidic. If there are no plants to use the ‘carbon’ for photosynthesis, this leaves unused carbonic acid to move the pH downwards. Reports from respected institutes around the globe, flag an acceleration of the ocean acidification process, which will result in the loss of more marine plants and animals, especially those that have carbonate shells and body structures (aragonite) based. These same reports forecast that in 25 years, pH will drop to 7.95 (2045) and with this, they estimate 80% to 90% of all remaining marine life will be lost – that in the GOES team’s opionion is a tipping point; a planetary boundary which must not be exceeded if humanity is to survive. Let’s be clear: If by some miracle the world achieves Net Zero by 2045, evidence from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) BioAcid report  report demonstrates that this reduction will not be enough to stop a drop in ocean to pH 7.95. If the level of marine life (both plants and animal) is reduced, then the oceans’ ability to lockout carbon into the abyss is depleted. It is clear to the GOES team that if we only pursue carbon mitigation strategies and don’t do more to regenerate plant and animal life in oceans, we will reach a tipping point, a planetary boundary from which there will be no return, because all life on Earth depends upon the largest ecosystem on the planet. Humanity will suffer terribly from global warming, but it must be understood that the oceans are already showing signs of instability today at pH8.04, but pH 7.95 represents the tipping point.
As pollinators decline globally, competition for their services is expected to intensify, and this antagonism may be most severe where the number of plant species is the greatest. Using meta-analysis and comparative phylogenetic analysis, we provide a global-scale test of whether reproduction becomes more limited by pollen receipt (pollen limitation) as the number of coexisting plant species increases. As predicted, we find a significant positive relationship between pollen limitation and species richness. In addition, this pattern is particularly strong for species that are obligately outcrossing and for trees relative to herbs or shrubs. We suggest that plants occurring in species-rich communities may be more prone to pollen limitation because of interspecific competition for pollinators. As a consequence, plants in biodiversity hotspots may have a higher risk of extinction and/or experience increased selection pressure to specialize on certain pollinators or diversify into different phenological niches. The combination of higher pollen limitation and habitat destruction represents a dual risk to tropical plant species that has not been previously identified.
Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid contemporary evolution can play a significant role in regulating population dynamics on ecological timescales. Here we identify a previously unrecognized mode by which rapid evolution can promote species coexistence via temporal fluctuations and a trade-off between competitive ability and the speed of adaptive evolution. We show that this interaction between rapid evolution and temporal fluctuations not only increases the range of coexistence conditions under a gleaner-opportunist trade-off (i.e., low minimum resource requirement [ ] vs. high maximum growth rate), but also yields stable coexistence in the absence of a classical gleaner-opportunist trade-off. Given the propensity for both oscillatory dynamics and divergent rates of adaptation (including rapid evolution and phenotypic plasticity) in the real world, we argue that this expansion of fluctuation-dependent coexistence theory provides an important overlooked solution to the so-called 'paradox of the plankton'.
Over millennia, ecological and evolutionary mechanisms have shaped macroecological distributions across the tree of life. Research describing patterns of regional and global biogeography has traditionally focussed on the study of conspicuous species. Consequently, there is limited understanding of cross-phyla biogeographic structuring, and an escalating need to understand the macroecology of both microscopic and macroscopic organisms. Here we used environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding to explore the biodiversity of marine metazoans, micro-eukaryotes and prokaryotes along an extensive and highly heterogeneous coastline. Our results showed remarkably consistent biogeographic structure across the kingdoms of life, which were underpinned by environmental and anthropogenic influence. Additionally, metazoan communities displayed biographic patterns that suggest regional biotic homogenisation of conspicuous species. Against the backdrop of global pervasive anthropogenic environmental change, our work highlights the importance of considering multiple domains of life to understand the maintenance and drivers of marine biodiversity across broad taxonomic, ecological and geographical scales.
Bacterial decomposition of organic matter in soils is generally believed to be mainly controlled by the accessibility of bacteria to their substrate. The influence of bacterial metabolic traits on this control has however received little attention in highly heterogeneous spatial conditions under advective-dispersive transport of bacteria and substrates. Here, we develop a biochemical transport model to screen the interactive impacts of dispersion and metabolic traits on mineralization. We compare the model results with two sets of previously performed cm-scale soil-core experiments in which the mineralization of the pesticide 2,4-D was measured under well-controlled initial distributions and transport conditions. Bacterial dispersion away from the source of substrate induced a significant increase in 2,4-D mineralization, revealing the existence of a control of decomposition by the bacterial density, in addition to the accessibility to the substrate. This regulation of degradation by density becomes dominant for bacteria with an efficient uptake of substrate at low substrate concentrations (i.e. oligotrophs). The model output suggests that the distance between bacteria adapted to oligotrophic environments is a stronger regulator of degradation than the distance between substrate source and these bacteria. Such oligotrophs, commonly found in soils, compete with each other for substrate even under remarkably low population densities. The ratio-dependent Contois growth model, which includes a density regulation in the expression of the uptake efficiency, appears more versatile and accurate than the substrate-dependent Monod model. In view of their strong interactions, biochemical and transport processes cannot be handled independently but should be integrated, in particular when biochemical processes of interest are carried out by oligotrophs.
Historical biogeographic events such as mountain orogeny are associated with the creation of environmental gradients, giving rise to the assembly of communities of species observed today. However, key gaps remain in our understanding of the relative importance of different eco-evolutionary processes acting as drivers of community assembly across environmental gradients. In this study, we test two non-exclusive hypotheses of the eco-evolutionary processes that shape tree communities across the Central Andean elevational gradient: Communities are assembled via 1) immigration and ecological sorting of pre-adapted clades, and 2) recent adaptive diversification along the elevational gradient. We used species surveys in the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes and a novel phylogenetic framework to test the relative importance of these hypotheses. Although adaptive diversification has previously been observed in specific clades, immigration and sorting of clades pre-adapted to montane habitats is the primary mechanism shaping communities across elevations.
The origin of language is one of the most significant evolutionary milestones of life on Earth, but one of the most persevering scientific unknowns. Two decades ago, game theorists and mathematicians predicted that the first words and grammar emerged as a response to transmission errors and information loss in language's precursor system, however, empirical proof is lacking. Here, we assessed information loss in proto-consonants and proto-vowels in human pre-linguistic ancestors as proxied by orangutan consonant-like and vowel-like calls that compose syllable-like combinations. We played back and re-recorded calls at increasing distances across a structurally complex habitat (i.e. adverse to sound transmission). Consonant-like and vowel-like calls degraded acoustically over distance, but no information loss was detected regarding three distinct classes of information (viz. individual ID, context and population ID). Our results refute prevailing mathematical predictions and herald a turning point in language evolution theory and heuristics. Namely, explaining how the vocal–verbal continuum was crossed in the hominid family will benefit from future mathematical and computational models that, in order to enjoy empirical validity and superior explanatory power, will be informed by great ape behaviour and repertoire.
Agriculture is the most comprehensive word used to denote the many ways in which crop plants and domestic animals sustain the global human population by providing food and other products. The English word agriculture derives from the Latin ager (field) and colo (cultivate) signifying, when combined, the Latin agricultura: field or land tillage. But the word has come to subsume a very wide spectrum of activities that are integral to agriculture and have their own descriptive terms, such as cultivation, domestication, horticulture, arboriculture, and vegeculture, as well as forms of livestock management such as mixed crop-livestock farming, pastoralism, and transhumance. Also agriculture is frequently qualified by words such as incipient, proto, shifting, extensive, and intensive, the precise meaning of which is not self-evident. Many different attributes are used too to define particular forms of agriculture, such as soil type, frequency of cultivation, and principal crops or animals. The term agriculture is occasionally restricted to crop cultivation excluding the raising of domestic animals, although it usually implies both activities. The Oxford English Dictionary (1971) defines agriculture very broadly as “The science and art of cultivating the soil, including the allied pursuits of gathering in the crops and rearing live stock (sic); tillage, husbandry, farming (in the widest sense).” In this entry, we too use the term in its broadest, inclusive sense.
Land use change, by disrupting the co-evolved interactions between plants and their pollinators, could be causing plant reproduction to be limited by pollen supply. Using a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis on over 2200 experimental studies and more than 1200 wild plants, we ask if land use intensification is causing plant reproduction to be pollen limited at global scales. Here we report that plants reliant on pollinators in urban settings are more pollen limited than similarly pollinator-reliant plants in other landscapes. Plants functionally specialized on bee pollinators are more pollen limited in natural than managed vegetation, but the reverse is true for plants pollinated exclusively by a non-bee functional group or those pollinated by multiple functional groups. Plants ecologically specialized on a single pollinator taxon were extremely pollen limited across land use types. These results suggest that while urbanization intensifies pollen limitation, ecologically and functionally specialized plants are at risk of pollen limitation across land use categories.