RH Logo
Hubs
About
Live
Leaderboard

My Hubs
All
ResearchHub Feeds
My Hubs
All

Trending Users

Author Profile Avatar
Patrick Joyce
Author Profile Avatar
Daniel Warner
Author Profile Avatar
Tony Fauxci
Author Profile Avatar
Alex Vnukov
Author Profile Avatar
Chen Wang
Author Profile Avatar
Stephen Olagbadun
Author Profile Avatar
Aleksandr Shabanov
Author Profile Avatar
anuj mishra
Author Profile Avatar
Tom Downin
Author Profile Avatar
Martijn Hoogeveen

Trending Papers in Epidemiology

Trending
Today
Trending
Today

Sign in to discover all of the research papers you care about, live as they're published.

8
From Paper: Cardiovascular damage associated with subchronic exposure to the glyphosate herbicide in Wistar rats
Published: Feb 2021
From Paper: Cardiovascular damage associated with subchronic exposure to the glyphosate herbicide in Wistar rats
Published: Feb 2021
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world. Although some studies have shown cardiac electrophysiological changes associated to glyphosate, the histopathological changes that this herbicide may cause in the cardiovascular system are not yet established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of subchronic oral and inhalation exposure to the glyphosate herbicide in rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats were distributed into eight groups (five males and five females/group): inhalation control: nebulization with sodium chloride solution (NaCl); oral control: nebulized feed with NaCl; low inhalation concentration: nebulization with 3.71 × 10 −3 grams of active ingredient per hectare (g.a.i./ha) of glyphosate; low oral concentration: nebulized feed with 3.71 × 10 −3 g.a.i./ha of glyphosate; medium inhalation concentration: nebulization with 6.19 × 10 −3 g.a.i./ha of glyphosate; medium oral concentration: nebulized feed with 6.19 × 10 −3 g.a.i./ha of glyphosate; high inhalation concentration: nebulization with 9.28 × 10 −3 g.a.i./ha of glyphosate; and high oral concentration: nebulized feed with 9.28 × 10 −3 g.a.i./ha of glyphosate. After 75 days of exposure, the animals were euthanized, and aortas and hearts were collected for histopathological analysis. Fatty streaks were observed in most animals exposed to glyphosate and were more prevalent in male rats, regardless of the route of exposure ( p < 0.05). There were no differences in the measurements of the thickness of the right and left ventricle or in the collagen density of both ventricles in any of the groups evaluated ( p > 0.05). Our study suggests that glyphosate has atherogenic potential, regardless of the concentration and route of exposure.
1
Authors: Sun, Jiaojiao, et al
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Sun, Jiaojiao, et al
Published: Feb 2021
The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their many sources for human exposure, and the ability of AgNPs to enter organisms and induce general toxicological responses have raised concerns regarding their public health and environmental safety. To elucidate the differential toxic effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped AgNPs with different primary particle sizes (i.e. 5, 50, and 75 nm), we performed a battery of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays and examined the inflammatory responses in two human cell lines (i.e. HepG2 and A549). Concentration-dependent decreases in cell proliferation and mitochondrial membrane potential and increases in cytokine (i.e. interleukin-6 and interleukin-8) excretion indicated disruption of mitochondrial function and inflammation as the main mediating factors of AgNPs-induced cytotoxicity. An incremental increase in genotoxicity with decreasing AgNPs diameter was noted in HepG2 cells, which was associated with S and G2/M accumulation and transcriptional activation of the GADD45α promoter as reflected by luciferase activity. Dose-related genetic damage, as indicated by Olive tail moment and micronucleus formation, was also observed in A549 cells, but these effects as well as the AgNPs-induced cytotoxicity were more associated with ionic Ag release from nanoparticles (NPs). In summary, the present study addressed different toxicity mechanisms of AgNPs, depending on the cell model, toxicological endpoint, particle size, and degree of Ag + release from NPs. The results suggest that the GADD45α promoter-driven luciferase reporter cell system provided a rapid screening tool for the identification of genotoxic properties of NPs across a range of different sizes and concentrations.
1
Authors: Inger L. Abma, Bas J. D. Butje, Peter M. ten Klooster, Philip J. van der Wees
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Inger L. Abma, Bas J. D. Butje, Peter M. ten Klooster, Philip J. van der Wees
Published: Feb 2021
Abstract Background Limitations in physical functioning are a big concern especially for patients with chronic or musculoskeletal diseases. Therefore, physical functioning is often used as a core outcome of treatments. The generic patient-reported outcomes information system (PROMIS) physical function (PF) item bank has shown potential to measure PF with better precision, interpretability and lower respondent burden compared with traditional patient-reported outcome measures. This study provides an overview of the current evidence on the quality of the measurement properties of the translated Dutch–Flemish PROMIS-PF item bank and its subdomains, and their derived short forms and computer adaptive tests (CATs). Methods PubMed was searched up to June 17th 2020 for validation studies of Dutch–Flemish PROMIS-PF in Dutch and Flemish adults. Quality assessment of the included studies was conducted using the COSMIN Risk of bias checklist. The COSMIN criteria for good measurement properties were used to judge the results of the studies, which were adjusted and added to where needed for this review, in the context of IRT instruments and item banks. The quality of evidence was summarized for each measurement property based on the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results Eleven studies were included, evaluating the PROMIS-PF item bank, the Upper Extremity (UE) subdomain, and/or their derived short forms and CATs in different clinical populations. There is evidence for sufficient structural validity, measurement precision, construct validity, and cross-cultural validity of the Dutch–Flemish PROMIS-PF item bank. The upper extremity subdomain item bank shows high quality evidence for structural validity and measurement precision. Content validity of these item banks has not been thoroughly demonstrated in a Dutch–Flemish population. Furthermore, the derived instruments have far less robust evidence: there are fewer validation studies available and none examined their performance as stand-alone administered instruments. Conclusions The first studies into the Dutch–Flemish PROMIS-PF item bank and the UE subdomain show promising results, with especially high quality evidence for sufficient structural validity and measurement precision. However, more studies, and with higher methodological quality, are needed to study the instruments derived from these item banks. These studies should also evaluate content validity, reliability and responsiveness.
1
Authors: Peter Bentsen, Lærke Mygind, Peter Elsborg, Glen Nielsen, Erik Mygind
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Peter Bentsen, Lærke Mygind, Peter Elsborg, Glen Nielsen, Erik Mygind
Published: Feb 2021
Introduction: It is central for public health to answer questions related to how to change health and wellbeing in populations through interdisciplinarity and health in all policies and sectors. For a school physical activity promotion initiative to be acceptable and thus feasible, the buy-in of teachers is fundamental. Therefore, school physical activity promotion should be integrated into and support teaching activities. Aims: We discuss the use of education outside the classroom as a feasible pedagogical approach that integrates and promotes physical activity for school children. Methods: We present and discuss theoretical arguments and empirical evidence to argue and illustrate that education outside the classroom is a promising approach for promoting physical activity. Results: Education outside the classroom is characterised by regular curriculum-based experiential teaching activities outside the classroom with the inclusion of physical activity as a means to pedagogical ends. School subjects are taught outside the classroom drawing on problem-based learning and experiential education. Here, physical activity is integrated without compromising curriculum goals which increases teacher buy-in and thereby intervention acceptability and feasibility. Empirical evidence suggests that education outside the classroom increases boys’ moderate to vigorous physical activity and girls’ light intensity physical activity. We contend that the mechanisms are a mix of place, pedagogy and pupil motivations. Conclusions: Education outside the classroom is a feasible and acceptable approach to public health and physical activity promotion because it is integrated into children’s everyday settings through curriculum time and applied broadly to child populations at a low cost. The practice of education outside the classroom is context-dependent and culturally bound, and practices therefore need to be adapted to the individual sociocultural context.
1
Authors: Joel Seme Ambikile, Sebalda Leshabari, Mayumi Ohnishi
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Joel Seme Ambikile, Sebalda Leshabari, Mayumi Ohnishi
Published: Feb 2021
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-known public health problem occurring worldwide. With a multisectoral approach being emphasized in addressing IPV, the health sector has a key role to play due to many IPV victims who appear in health facilities without their needs being met. A well-designed and implemented IPV curriculum is necessary for effectively training health care professionals to provide quality IPV care and related services. This integrative review was conducted to establish evidence for existing curricular limitations and recommendations for training health care providers to respond to IPV. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from 2000 to 2020 in five databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google, and Scholar). As a criterion, studies that reported curricular limitations in training health care providers/professionals to address IPV were included. A total of 198 studies were identified for screening, with 16 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and included in the review. Findings: Curricular limitations for IPV response training for health care providers were reported in the following areas (themes): time allocated for the training, amount of content in the existing curricula, institutional endorsement for the content, IPV response teachers/facilitators, teaching and learning strategies, and funding to support curricular implementation. Various recommendations to improving IPV response training were provided including guaranteeing the training in all courses, increasing academic capability to teach the content, allocation of funding to improve infrastructure for curriculum development and implementation, comprehensive approaches to teaching, and continuing education for health care providers.
1
Authors: Shaw, Sarah, et al
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Shaw, Sarah, et al
Published: Feb 2021
Abstract Objective: To identify the ways in which parental involvement can be incorporated into interventions to support adolescent health behaviour change. Design: Data from semi-structured interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Setting: Southampton, Hampshire, UK. Participants: A convenience sample of twenty-four parents of adolescents. Results: Parents consider themselves to play an important role in supporting their adolescents to make healthy choices. Parents saw themselves as gatekeepers of the household and as role models to their adolescents but recognised this could be both positive and negative in terms of health behaviours. Parents described the changing dynamics of the relationships they have with their adolescents because of increased adolescent autonomy. Parents stated that these changes altered their level of influence over adolescents’ health behaviours. Parents considered it important to promote independence in their adolescents; however, many described this as challenging because they believed their adolescents were likely to make unhealthy decisions if not given guidance. Parents reported difficulty in supporting adolescents in a way that was not viewed as forceful or pressuring. Conclusions: When designing adolescent health interventions that include parental components, researchers need to be aware of the disconnect between public health recommendations and the everyday reality for adolescents and their parents. Parental involvement in adolescent interventions could be helpful but needs to be done in a manner that is acceptable to both adolescents and parents. The findings of this study may be useful to inform interventions which need to consider the transitions and negotiations which are common in homes containing adolescents.
1
Authors: Charity Ben-Enukora, Olushola Oyero, Nelson Okorie, Kehinde Oyesomi, Babatunde Adeyeye
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Charity Ben-Enukora, Olushola Oyero, Nelson Okorie, Kehinde Oyesomi, Babatunde Adeyeye
Published: Feb 2021
Background: Lassa fever is one of the known Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) that plague some states in Nigeria. Radio jingles in indigenous language have been adopted as a veritable risk communication approach to promote public knowledge in the bid to reduce the incidence of Lassa fever outbreaks in Ondo state which has recorded the highest number of victims in recent times. Given the high level of women’s contribution in home keeping, food storage as well as maintenance of environmental hygiene practices, their knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), is fundamental for the control of Lassa fever. Objective: The study examines the efficacy of indigenous (Yoruba) language radio jingles on knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards Lassa fever prevention among women in Ondo state. Methods: The study adopted a qualitative approach using Focus Group Discussion as the method of data collection. Results: Majority of the sampled respondents showed ample knowledge of Lassa fever. However, most respondents showed poor attitude towards the rodent vector and the recommended preventive measures have not been fully adopted by the majority of the respondents due to some identified barriers that hinder them from performing certain preventive practices. Conclusion: The radio jingles in Yoruba language have succeeded in promoting adequate knowledge of Lassa fever among women in Ondo state. Although attitude towards the disease vector is still poor and total compliance with the recommended preventive practices that will reduce the spate of Lassa fever in the state have not been achieved.
Slide 1 of 1
  • Paper Preview Page 1
1
Authors: Maria Livanou, Sophie D’Souza, Rebecca Lane, Breanna La Plante, Swaran P. Singh
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Maria Livanou, Sophie D’Souza, Rebecca Lane, Breanna La Plante, Swaran P. Singh
Published: Feb 2021
Abstract Young people moving from child and adolescent secure hospitals present with complex needs and vulnerabilities and are more likely to experience poor transition outcomes. Previous research has indicated the presence of several risk factors in periods of transition, such as poor liaison among services, lack of proper planning, shortage of beds in adult services, multiple transitions and lack of emotional readiness. However, little evidence exists about the processes and outcomes of transitions from adolescent secure services to adult settings. This study aims to bridge the gap in the existing literature by exploring the views and experiences of key professionals involved in the transition process from six adolescent medium secure units to nine adult secure and community services in England. Thirty-four key workers from 15 child and adolescent ( N  = 21) and adult ( N  = 13) forensic hospitals were interviewed to provide information about potential barriers and facilitators to transitions. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted between January 2016 and December 2017. Thematic analysis was used to identify challenges and facilitators to transitions. Three primary themes were identified: (1) transition processes and preparation; (2) transition barriers and challenges; (3) success factors to transition. Key differences in adult and adolescent service care-models and lack of emotional and developmental readiness to moving onto adult-oriented settings constitute major barriers to positive transition outcomes. Practice and policy implications are considered to address the need for service transformations.
1
Authors: Kaddu-Mulindwa, Dominic, et al
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Kaddu-Mulindwa, Dominic, et al
Published: Feb 2021
Abstract Due to the worldwide COVID-19 outbreak it is mandatory for health care workers to develop containment strategies. Recently published data showed, that cancer patients might have a higher risk for severe course of the disease. We therefore developed a strategy of screening and containment for SARS-CoV-2 for hospitalized cancer patients. Our approach includes a temporary isolation in a so-called floating zone and testing strategy for screening of asymptomatic individuals by pooling of samples before RT-PCR amplification. Patients as far as health care professionals got tested twice a week. Nurses and physicians entered the floating zone with full body protection. Within 8 weeks we tested 418 individuals (professionals and patients) in total. Only 2 patients had COVID-19 without documented further transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We therefore think that our strategy might be a useful approach to protect inpatients with cancer at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection during this ongoing pandemic.
1
Authors: Jonas Björk, Kristoffer Mattisson, Anders Ahlbom
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Jonas Björk, Kristoffer Mattisson, Anders Ahlbom
Published: Feb 2021
Abstract Background This aggregated population study investigated the impact of the seemingly quasi-randomly assigned school winter holiday in week 6–10 (February to early March) on excess mortality in 219 European regions (11 countries) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring 2020. A secondary aim was to evaluate the impact of government responses to the early inflow of infected cases. Methods Data on government responses week 8–14 were obtained from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Regional data on total all-cause mortality during week 14–23 in 2020 were retrieved from Eurostat and national statistical agencies and compared with the average mortality during same period 2015–2019. Variance-weighted least square regression was used with mortality difference as dependent variable with adjustment for country, population density and age distribution. Results Being a region with winter holiday exclusively in week 9 was in the adjusted analysis associated with 16 weekly excess deaths (95% confidence interval 13 to 20) per million inhabitants during week 14–23, which corresponds to 38% of the excess mortality in these regions. A more stringent response implemented in week 11, corresponding to 10 additional units on the 0–100 ordinal scale, was associated with 20 fewer weekly deaths (95% confidence interval 18 to 22) per million inhabitants. Conclusions Winter holiday in week 9 was an amplifying event that contributed importantly to the excess mortality observed in the study regions during the spring 2020. Timely government responses to the resulting early inflow of cases reduced the excess in mortality.
Load More Papers