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Trending Papers in mental illness

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7
Reduced heart rate variability is associated with vulnerability to depression
Published: Sep 2020
  • The results suggest that reduced HRV is likely to be implicated in the risk of developing full-blown depression, rather than being a mere correlate of current depressive state
  • Self-reported psychological measures and three-minute resting-state ECG were collected in two at-risk populations [group with dysphoria (n = 27), group with past depression (n = 16)] and in a control group (n = 25)
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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8
Stem cells administered via the nose can help treat schizophrenia
From Paper: Mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles improve behavioral and biochemical deficits in a phencyclidine model of schizophrenia
Authors:
Tsivion-Visbord, Hadas, et al
Published: Sep 2020
  • MSCs-EVs treatment significantly restored a normal social pattern in these mice, as shown in a heat map representation of the time spent exploring the chambers and by quantitative measurement of that activity
  • The intranasal route for administration of drugs is especially advantageous for CNS access, convenient to use and can improve patient compliance. Another advantage of using MSCs-EVs is their ability to migrate to the site of injury, demonstrated in studies done by our research group and by others
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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5
The development of an algorithm that can help optimize treatment for adolescent depression between pharmaceuticals and cognitive behavioral therapy
From Paper: Developing a data-driven algorithm for guiding selection between cognitive behavioral therapy, fluoxetine, and combination treatment for adolescent depression
Authors:
Meredith Gunlicks-Stoessel, Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Adrienne VanZomeren, Sisi Ma
Published: Sep 2020
  • This model successfully stratified patients according to their responsiveness to a SSRI vs cognitive behavior therapy vs. a combination of the two
  • In this paper, machine-learning was applied to a wide range of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial data collected in treatment of adolescents with depression study (TADS) to build a model to predict overall treatment response after 12 weeks
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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11
Specific regions of the brain increase in volume after successful treatment of major depressive disorder with ketamine
From Paper: Volumetric changes in subcortical structures following repeated ketamine treatment in patients with major depressive disorder: a longitudinal analysis
Authors:
Zhou, Yan-Ling, et al
Published: Aug 2020
  • The results show that there was an increase in the volumes of the right hippocampus and left amygdala after six infusions of ketamine in patients with MDD
  • MDD patients with larger volumes of the right thalamus and the subiculum head of the left hippocampus are more likely to benefit from repeated ketamine infusions
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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11
Exploring glutamate and GABA signaling in the prefrontal cortex as a potential biomarker for schizophrenia
From Paper: Prefrontal cortical alterations of glutamate and GABA neurotransmission in schizophrenia: Insights for rational biomarker development
Published: May 2020
  • This study reviews postmortem findings of alterations to both cell types in the DLPFC and discusses how these findings might inform future biomarker development and use
  • Gamma oscillations in the DLPFC appear to be a neural corollary of working memory function, and the power of these oscillations during working memory tasks is lower in individuals with schizophrenia
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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7
Mothers with immune related conditions are more likely to have male children on the autism spectrum
From Paper: Maternal immune conditions are increased in males with autism spectrum disorders and are associated with behavioural and emotional but not cognitive co-morbidity
Author:
Paul Ashwood
  • A history of maternal asthma was twice as common in male children (20.2%) compared to female children (10.8%) with ASD
  • A history of maternal immune conditions was more common in male children with ASD compared to female children with ASD
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
3
A lipid biomarker can help predict risk of hearing-loss in Alzheimers patients
From Paper: Hearing loss in Alzheimer Disease is associated with altered serum lipidomic biomarker profiles
  • The results suggest a potential role for phosphatidylcholine in the underlying pathophysiology of age-related hearing loss in the context of AD
  • This paper investigates the distribution of serum lipidomic biomarkers in AD subjects with or without hearing loss in a publicly available dataset
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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13
Researchers discover a novel biomarker which can help distinguish bipolar depression from unipolar depression
From Paper: Plasma microRNA Array Analysis Identifies Overexpressed miR-19b-3p as a Biomarker of Bipolar Depression Distinguishing From Unipolar Depression
Published: Aug 2020
  • Peripheral miR-19b-3p might be a potential non-invasive biomarker between unipolar and bipolar depression, and might be involved in a pathway of inflammatory dysregulation related with early life stress
  • BD patients were more likely to have higher level of miR-19b-3p and more severe childhood trauma experience than UD patients
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Slide 1 of 1
21
An acupuncture protocol to treat dementia developed by Harvard Psychiatrists
From Paper: Neuroimaging-Based Scalp Acupuncture Locations for Dementia
  • The authors identify multiple surface areas to be the target regions for scalp acupuncture. Their findings are consistent with the physiology/function of these brain regions.
  • This study aims to integrate meta-analysis, resting-state functional connectivity, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to identify potential locations of scalp acupuncture for treatment of dementia.
Submitted by Ida Rolf
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1
SKINREMS—A New Method for Assessment of the Niacin Skin Flush Test Response in Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia has been considered a disorder linked with faulty lipid homeostasis, and the proposed tool for assessment of these disruptions is the niacin skin flush test. The aims of the study were: 1. Create a new tool to analyze results of the niacin skin flush test more precisely and objectively. 2. Verify the utility of a self-created tool for differentiating between schizophrenia (SZ; n = 56), bipolar disorder (BD; n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 45) individuals. The proposed developed method, based on the Skin Reaction Measurement Computer System (SKINREMS), allows one to evaluate the response to the niacin skin flush test quickly and objectively. SKINREMS showed good accuracy in discriminating SZ from BD (with sensitivity 91% and specificity 72%), and SZ from HC (71% and 66%, respectively), and sufficient but not excellent accuracy in discriminating BD from HC (55% and 54%, respectively). The pathophysiological pathways and features shared by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be the reason for difficulties in fully discriminating between these two mental disorders using the niacin challenge test. The management of disruptions in the phospholipid metabolism and the inflammatory process could potentially become an individualized form of therapy in a subgroup of psychiatric patients.
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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