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59
Date Added: May 7, 2021
Date Added: May 7, 2021
Background: The nature and extent of persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19 are not established. To help inform mental health service planning in the pandemic recovery phase, we systematically determined the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in survivors of COVID-19. Methods: For this pre-registered systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO ID CRD42021239750) we searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO to 20th February 2021, plus our own curated database. We included peer-reviewed studies reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms at post-acute or later time-points after COVID-19 infection, and in control groups where available. For each study a minimum of two authors extracted summary data. For each symptom we calculated a primary pooled prevalence using generalised linear mixed models. Heterogeneity was measured with I2. Subgroup analyses were conducted for COVID-19 hospitalisation, severity, and duration of follow-up. Results: From 2,844 unique titles we included 51 studies (n=18,917 patients). The mean duration of follow-up after COVID-19 was 77 days (range 14-182 days). Study quality was generally moderate. The most frequent neuropsychiatric symptom was sleep disturbance (pooled prevalence=27.4% [95%CI 21.4-34.4%]), followed by fatigue (24.4% [17.5-32.9%]), objective cognitive impairment (20.2% [10.3-35.7%]), anxiety (19.1%[13.3-26.8%]), and post-traumatic stress (15.7% [9.9-24.1%]). Only two studies reported symptoms in control groups, both reporting higher frequencies in Covid-19 survivors versus controls. Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=79.6%-98.6%). There was little or no evidence of differential symptom prevalence based on hospitalisation status, severity, or follow-up duration. Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and persistent after recovery from COVID-19. The literature on longer-term consequences is still maturing, but indicates a particularly high frequency of insomnia, fatigue, cognitive impairment, and anxiety disorders in the first six months after infection.
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Date Added: Apr 16, 2021
Authors: Briana L. McGeough, Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe, Sarah E. Zemore
Date Added: Apr 16, 2021
Authors: Briana L. McGeough, Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe, Sarah E. Zemore
2
Date Added: Apr 25, 2021
Authors: Gard, Arianna M., et al
Date Added: Apr 25, 2021
Authors: Gard, Arianna M., et al
Although psychiatric phenotypes are hypothesized to organize into a two-factor internalizing–externalizing structure, few studies have evaluated the structure of psychopathology in older adults, nor explored whether genome-wide polygenic scores (PGSs) are associated with psychopathology in a domain-specific manner. We used data from 6003 individuals of European ancestry from the Health and Retirement Study, a large population-based sample of older adults in the United States. Confirmatory factor analyses were applied to validated measures of psychopathology and PGSs were derived from well-powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genomic SEM was implemented to construct latent PGSs for internalizing, externalizing, and general psychopathology. Phenotypically, the data were best characterized by a single general factor of psychopathology, a factor structure that was replicated across genders and age groups. Although externalizing PGSs (cannabis use, antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) were not associated with any phenotypes, PGSs for major depressive disorder, neuroticism, and anxiety disorders were associated with both internalizing and externalizing phenotypes. Moreover, the variance explained in the general factor of psychopathology increased by twofold (from 1% to 2%) using the latent internalizing or latent one-factor PGSs, derived using weights from Genomic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), compared with any of the individual PGSs. Collectively, results suggest that genetic risk factors for and phenotypic markers of psychiatric disorders are transdiagnostic in older adults of European ancestry. Alternative explanations are discussed, including methodological limitations of GWAS and phenotypic measurement of psychiatric outcome in large-scale population-based studies.
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Date Added: Apr 25, 2021
Authors: Christopher H. Ramey, Evangelia G. Chrysikou
Date Added: Apr 25, 2021
Authors: Christopher H. Ramey, Evangelia G. Chrysikou
The empirical link between psychopathology and creativity is often correlational and fraught with suspiciously causal interpretations. In this paper, we review research in favor of the position that certain forms of psychopathology that profoundly affect the neural substrates for rule-based thought (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) can significantly influence the quantity of creative production. Because highly productive individuals, irrespective of psychopathology, often produce work of greater quality, it seems that such an increase in the quantity of one’s output positively affects the likelihood of generating those statistically rare acts and achievements identified and celebrated as creative. We consider evidence that offers support for such a claim. In addition, we explore findings from neuroscience that can address how a neural mechanism, the flexibility of which relies on tradeoffs between rule-based (e.g., prefrontal cortex) and stimulus-based (e.g., sensorimotor cortex) brain regions, is influenced by psychopathology in ways that can alter dramatically the quantity and quality of creative output.
2
Date Added: Apr 26, 2021
Authors: Fernandez, Ephrem, et al
Date Added: Apr 26, 2021
Authors: Fernandez, Ephrem, et al
In-person psychotherapy (IPP) has a long and storied past but technology advances have ushered in a new era of video-delivered psychotherapy (VDP). In this meta-analysis, pre-post changes within VDP were evaluated as were outcome differences between VDP vs IPP or other comparison groups. A literature search identified k=56 within-group studies (N= 1681 participants) and 47 between-group studies (N=3564). The pre-post effect size of VDP was large and highly significant, g=+0.99 95% CI [0.67; 0.31]. VDP was significantly better in outcome than wait list controls (g=0.77) but negligible in difference from IPP. Within-groups heterogeneity of effect sizes was reduced after subgrouping studies by treatment target, of which anxiety, depression, and PTSD (each with k> 5) had effect sizes nearing 1.00. Disaggregating within-groups studies by therapy type, the effect size was 1.34 for CBT, and 0.66 for non-CBT. Adjusted for possible publication bias, the overall effect size of VDP within groups was g=0.54. In conclusion, substantial and significant improvement occurs from pre- to post-phases of VDP, this in turn differing negligibly from IPP treatment outcome. The VDP improvement is most pronounced when CBT is used, and when anxiety, depression, or PTSD are targeted, and it remains strong though attenuated by publication bias. Clinically, therapy is no less efficacious when delivered via videoconferencing than in-person, with efficacy most pronounced in CBT for affective disorders. Live psychotherapy by video emerges not only as a popular and convenient choice but also one that is now upheld by meta-analytic evidence.
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Date Added: Mar 27, 2021
Authors: Anna Banik, Karolina Zarychta, Nina Knoll, Aleksandra Luszczynska
Date Added: Mar 27, 2021
Authors: Anna Banik, Karolina Zarychta, Nina Knoll, Aleksandra Luszczynska
Abstract Background There are two alternative mechanisms, elucidating the reciprocal relationship between self-efficacy and social support when explaining health outcomes: self-efficacy beliefs may operate as the establisher of social support (the cultivation model) or social support may enable the formation of self-efficacy beliefs (the enabling model). Purpose In line with the cultivation hypothesis, it was tested if self-efficacy (measured in parents and children) would indirectly predict parental and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), via the mediator, social support (parent-provided, child-received). In line with the enabling hypothesis, it was tested if social support would predict MVPA indirectly, via the mediator, self-efficacy. Methods A total of 879 parent–child dyads (1758 individuals; 52.4% girls, aged 5–11 years old, 83.2% mothers) provided self-reports at the baseline (T1) and the 7- to 8-month follow-up (T2). Body weight and height were measured objectively. Manifest path analyses were performed, controlling for the baseline levels of the mediator and dependent variables. Results A similar number of significant simple indirect effects was found for the cultivation and the enabling model. Across the models, the indirect effects followed similar patterns: (a) within-individual indirect effects in children; (b) across-individual indirect effects, with the independent variable measured in children and the mediator/dependent variables measured in parents (e.g., child self-efficacy predicted parental support provision and, indirectly, parental MVPA); (c) across-individual indirect effects, accounting for self-efficacy and MVPA measured in children, combined with parental reports of social support. Conclusions The findings provide support for both cultivation and enabling models in the context of MVPA among parent–child dyads.
1
Date Added: Mar 27, 2021
Authors: Franziska Degenhardt, Gertraud Gradl-Dietsch, Johannes Hebebrand
Date Added: Mar 27, 2021
Authors: Franziska Degenhardt, Gertraud Gradl-Dietsch, Johannes Hebebrand
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