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3
Date Added: Jan 25, 2022
Date Added: Jan 25, 2022
Women comprise a minority of the Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine (STEMM) workforce. Quantifying the gender gap may identify fields that will not reach parity without intervention, reveal underappreciated biases, and inform benchmarks for gender balance among conference speakers, editors, and hiring committees. Using the PubMed and arXiv databases, we estimated the gender of 36 million authors from >100 countries publishing in >6000 journals, covering most STEMM disciplines over the last 15 years, and made a web app allowing easy access to the data (https://lukeholman.github.io/genderGap/). Despite recent progress, the gender gap appears likely to persist for generations, particularly in surgery, computer science, physics, and maths. The gap is especially large in authorship positions associated with seniority, and prestigious journals have fewer women authors. Additionally, we estimate that men are invited by journals to submit papers at approximately double the rate of women. Wealthy countries, notably Japan, Germany, and Switzerland, had fewer women authors than poorer ones. We conclude that the STEMM gender gap will not close without further reforms in education, mentoring, and academic publishing.
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Date Added: Jan 23, 2022
Date Added: Jan 23, 2022
Despite efforts to recruit and retain more women, a stark gender disparity persists within academic science. Abundant research has demonstrated gender bias in many demographic groups, but has yet to experimentally investigate whether science faculty exhibit a bias against female students that could contribute to the gender disparity in academic science. In a randomized double-blind study (n = 127), science faculty from research-intensive universities rated the application materials of a student—who was randomly assigned either a male or female name—for a laboratory manager position. Faculty participants rated the male applicant as significantly more competent and hireable than the (identical) female applicant. These participants also selected a higher starting salary and offered more career mentoring to the male applicant. The gender of the faculty participants did not affect responses, such that female and male faculty were equally likely to exhibit bias against the female student. Mediation analyses indicated that the female student was less likely to be hired because she was viewed as less competent. We also assessed faculty participants’ preexisting subtle bias against women using a standard instrument and found that preexisting subtle bias against women played a moderating role, such that subtle bias against women was associated with less support for the female student, but was unrelated to reactions to the male student. These results suggest that interventions addressing faculty gender bias might advance the goal of increasing the participation of women in science.
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4
Date Added: Jan 19, 2022
Date Added: Jan 19, 2022
Background Trans women face disproportionate burden of adverse health outcomes, including mental health issues. Very little is known about suicidal behavior among trans women in low- and middle-income settings, such as Brazil. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of lifetime suicidal behavior and to identify its associated factors among Brazilian trans women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 345 trans women living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior (ideation and suicide attempt) and its associated factors using stepwise backward Poisson regression analysis with robust variance. Results Suicidal ideation was present among 47.25% of participants, and the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempt was 27.25%. Trans women with prior physical violence perpetrated by a family member had significantly higher prevalence of suicidal ideation (adjusted prevalence ratios [aPR]1.37), whereas those who reported sex work had lower prevalence ratio of suicidal ideation (aPR 0.76). Suicide attempt was significantly associated with living alone (aPR 1.48), physical violence by a casual partner (aPR 1.92), and sexual violence by a family member (aPR 1.69). Depression was significantly associated with both outcomes (aPR 1.90 for suicidal ideation and aPR 2.21 for suicide attempt). Conclusion Suicidal behavior prevalence rates among Brazilian trans women were alarming and directly linked to violence and poor mental health. Effective mental health and public health policies addressing violence against trans women are urgently needed to prevent suicidal behavior among this highly vulnerable population.
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Date Added: Jan 6, 2022
Date Added: Jan 6, 2022
Several studies have investigated the way learners connect with science, re-emphasising persisting inequalities in science learning. This article combines the concept of intersectionality with the theoretical lens of science learning ecologies to focus on inequalities in connecting with science: Which factors influence the formation of a positive science attitude of young learners and how does the social background of young learners influence their opportunities of connecting with science, focusing on the intersections of class and gender? Based on a quantitative survey among 1,486 visitors of non-formal science education offers aged between 8 and 21, we analyze important factors for the development of a positive science attitude and investigate structural inequalities. The intersectional perspective was implemented in the sampling, survey design as well as its analysis. Using composite indicators of age and gender as well as gender and educational capital, we avoid a homogenisation of broadly defined groups. The results highlight that the development of a highly positive science attitude–as identified in a stepwise logistic regression model–is linked to supportive social environments, intrinsic motivation, science learning in school as well as regular engagement in arts-based learning, and self-directed science learning. The learning ecology perspective illustrates the influence of school on science attitudes in general. From an intersectional perspective, however, our findings demonstrate that the persistence of an androcentric and classist concept of science is not compatible with every learning ecology; male learners from educationally affluent backgrounds are most likely to enjoy science learning and see how science relates to their everyday realities. In turn, however, not only female learners with lower educational capital but also male learners with lower educational capital might find it more difficult to connect with science. The intersectional approach unveiled the multiple ways educational capital and gender shape individual learning ecologies. More equitable science learning spaces and offers have to adapt to a diversity of needs and preferences in order to make science activities enjoyable for all.
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Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
Objective: This paper is based on a 2017 Baltimore International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) plenary presentation by the first author and addresses how female and male physicians' communication is perceived and evaluated differently. Female physicians use patientcentered communication which is the interaction style clearly preferred by patients. Logically, patients should be much more satisfied with female than male physicians. However, research shows that this is not the case. Methods: This article provides an overview on how female and male physician communication is evaluated and perceived differently by patients and discusses whether and how gender stereotypes can explain these differences in perception and evaluation. Results: Male physicians obtain good patient outcomes when verbally expressing patient-centeredness while female physicians have patients who report better outcomes when they adapt their nonverbal communication to the different needs of their patients. Conclusion: The analysis reveals that existing empirical findings cannot simply be explained by the adherence or not to gender stereotypes. Female physicians do not always get credit for showing gender role congruent behavior. All in all, female and male physicians do not obtain credit for the same behaviors. Practice Implications: Physician communication training might put different accents for female and male physicians.
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Date Added: Jan 1, 2022
Date Added: Jan 1, 2022
Studies have repeatedly reported that math and science are perceived as male domains, and scientists as predominantly male. However, the impact of the gender image of school science subjects on young people's career choice has not yet been analyzed. This paper investigates the impact of the masculinity image of three school subjects—chemistry, mathematics, and physics—on secondary students' career aspirations in STEM fields. The data originated from a cross-sectional study among 1'364 Swiss secondary school students who were close to obtaining their matriculation diploma. By means of a standardized survey, data on students' perception of masculinity of science school subjects were collected using semantic differentials. The results indicate that for both sexes, math has the strongest masculinity attribution, followed by physics as second, and, finally, chemistry with the lowest masculinity attribution. With respect to gender differences, our findings have shown that among female students, the attribution of masculinity to the three school subjects does not differ significantly, meaning that female students rated all subjects similarly strongly as masculine. Within the group of male students however, the attribution of masculinity to math compared to chemistry and physics differs significantly, whereas the attribution of masculinity to chemistry and physics does not. Our findings also suggest that gender-science stereotypes of math and science can potentially influence young women's and men's aspirations to enroll in a STEM major at university by showing that a less pronounced masculine image of science has the potential to increase the likelihood of STEM career aspirations. Finally, the paper discusses ways of changing the image of math and science in the context of secondary education in order to overcome the disparities between females and males in STEM.
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Date Added: Jan 7, 2022
Date Added: Jan 7, 2022
In her article “Transgender Children and the Right to Transition,” Maura Priest argues in favor of legislation that would enshrine trans youth’s right to access puberty blockers without parental approval (Priest 2019). Taking note of the political context and reluctance which legislators may show in curtailing parental authority, she also acknowledges that such laws may only be politically feasible if they come with the requirement that parents be notified of their child’s attempt to receive a prescription for puberty blockers, medication that temporarily suspends puberty, granting youth more time to decide on whether they want to undergo hormone replacement therapy. Hers is an important and timely proposal. However, I believe that her recommendations should be bolstered by publicly funding support and counseling for parents of trans youth. Accessing puberty blockers without parental approval can precipitate familial conflict and pose significant risks for trans youth. Measures of support geared toward promoting parent acceptance of their child’s gender identity are a reasonable addition to her proposal and would help curtail the damages of parental rejection.
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Date Added: Jan 6, 2022
Date Added: Jan 6, 2022
Rates of depression are higher in transgender women than in the general population, warranting an understanding of the variables related to depression in this group. Results of the literature review of depression in transgender women reveal several variables influencing depression, including social support, violence, sex work, and gender identity. The theoretical constructs of minority stress, coping, and identity control theory are explored in terms of how they may predict depression in transgender women. Depression and depressive symptoms have been used to predict high-risk sexual behaviors with mixed results. The implications of the findings on treating depression in transgender women include taking into account the stress of transition and the importance of supportive peers and family. Future studies should explore a model of depression and high-risk behaviors in transgender women.
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Date Added: Jan 9, 2022
Date Added: Jan 9, 2022
This study uses a mixed method sequential exploratory design to examine motivational and contextual influences on boys’ and girls’ engagement in math and science, paying particular attention to similarities and differences in the patterns by gender. First, interviews were conducted with 38 middle and high school students who varied in their level of math and science engagement about their perceptions of the motivational and contextual factors influencing their level of engagement. Both boys and girls discussed how their engagement was higher in classrooms with more student-centered instructional practices and in classrooms with highly engaged peers. Girls were more likely to discuss teacher support and personally relevant instruction as being important to their engagement in math and science. In contrast, boys reported being more engaged in math and science when they were interested in pursuing a STEM-related career. From these interviews, we identified factors that students described as important to their engagement and tested whether these factors were statistically significant in a socioeconomic and racially diverse sample of 3,833 middle and high school students. Specifically, we tested the associations between adolescents’ motivational beliefs (e.g., utility value, attainment value, and expectancy beliefs), social support from teachers and peers, and student-centered and relevant instructional practices with engagement (e.g., cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and social) in math and science, paying particular attention to main effects and gender as a moderator. In the majority of the models, the motivational and contextual factors were significantly related to engagement and had comparable effects for girls and boys. We documented a few significant interactions by gender that tended to mirror the patterns found in the qualitative interviews. Implications of these findings for developing interventions to increase girls’ participation in math and science are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 55: 271–298, 2018