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Generative models for clinical applications in computational psychiatry

Paper Title:

Generative models for clinical applications in computational psychiatry

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Abstract

Despite the success of modern neuroimaging techniques in furthering our understanding of cognitive and pathophysiological processes, translation of these advances into clinically relevant tools has been virtually absent until now. Neuromodeling represents a powerful framework for overcoming this translational deadlock, and the development of computational models to solve clinical problems has become a major scientific goal over the last decade, as reflected by the emergence of clinically oriented neuromodeling fields like Computational Psychiatry, Computational Neurology, and Computational Psychosomatics. Generative models of brain physiology and connectivity in the human brain play a key role in this endeavor, striving for computational assays that can be applied to neuroimaging data from individual patients for differential diagnosis and treatment prediction. In this review, we focus on dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and its use for Computational Psychiatry. DCM is a widely used generative modeling framework for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magneto-/electroencephalography (M/EEG) data. This article reviews the basic concepts of DCM, revisits examples where it has proven valuable for addressing clinically relevant questions, and critically discusses methodological challenges and recent methodological advances. We conclude this review with a more general discussion of the promises and pitfalls of generative models in Computational Psychiatry and highlight the path that lies ahead of us.

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