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352
Authors: Fangfang Yan, Zhongming Zhao, Lukas M Simon
Published: Jan 2021
Authors: Fangfang Yan, Zhongming Zhao, Lukas M Simon
Published: Jan 2021
Droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has significantly increased the number of cells profiled per experiment and revolutionized the study of individual transcriptomes. However, to maximize the biological signal robust computational methods are needed to distinguish cell-free from cell-containing droplets. Here, we introduce a novel cell-calling algorithm called EmptyNN, which trains a neural network based on positive-unlabeled learning for improved filtering of barcodes. We leveraged cell hashing and genetic variation to provide ground-truth. EmptyNN accurately removed cell-free droplets while recovering lost cell clusters, and achieved an Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (AUROC) of 94.73% and 96.30%, respectively. The comparisons to current state-of-the-art cell-calling algorithms demonstrated the superior performance of EmptyNN, as measured by the number of recovered cell-containing droplets and cell types. EmptyNN was further applied to two additional datasets and showed good performance. Therefore, EmptyNN represents a powerful tool to enhance scRNA-seq quality control analyses.
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Chukwuma Chidera
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Chukwuma Chidera
302
From Paper: Applications of phage-derived RNA-based technologies in synthetic biology
Published: Oct 2020
From Paper: Applications of phage-derived RNA-based technologies in synthetic biology
Published: Oct 2020
  • Bacteriophages (also known as phages) are viruses that infect bacteria, fungi, algae, actinomycetes or spirochetes.
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ayotune adebayo
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ayotune adebayo
202
Published: Jul 2019
Published: Jul 2019
  • Current media coverage about synthetic biology is relatively positive. • Public attitudes vary according to different applications of synthetic biology. • The public prioritise environmental enhancement, healthy food and food packaging. • Research on societal responses to specific synthetic biology applications is needed. • Better framing of synthetic biology is required for public engagement/communication.
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ayotune adebayo
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ayotune adebayo
202
Authors: Pengfan Zhang, Stjin Spaepen, Yang Bai, Stephane Hacquard, Ruben Garrido-Oter
Published: Jan 2021
Authors: Pengfan Zhang, Stjin Spaepen, Yang Bai, Stephane Hacquard, Ruben Garrido-Oter
Published: Jan 2021
Motivation: Synthetic microbial communities (SynComs) constitute an emergent and powerful tool in biological, biomedical, and biotechnological research. Despite recent advances in algorithms for analysis of culture-independent amplicon sequencing data from microbial communities, there is a lack of tools specifically designed for analysing SynCom data, where reference sequences for each strain are available. Results: Here we present Rbec, a tool designed for analysing SynCom data that outperforms current methods by accurately correcting errors in amplicon sequences and identifying intra-strain polymorphic variation. Extensive evaluation using mock bacterial and fungal communities show that our tool performs robustly for samples of varying complexity, diversity, and sequencing depth. Further, Rbec also allows accurate detection of contaminations in SynCom experiments. Availability: Rbec is freely available as an open-source R package and can be downloaded at: https://github.com/PengfanZhang/Microbiome.
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Chukwuma Chidera
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Chukwuma Chidera
202
From Paper: Engineering cell fate: Applying synthetic biology to cellular reprogramming
Published: Sep 2020
From Paper: Engineering cell fate: Applying synthetic biology to cellular reprogramming
Published: Sep 2020
  • Roadblocks to cellular reprogramming can be overcome with synthetic biology tools. • Highly interconnected aspects of latent donor cell identity affect reprogramming. • Recent systems-level studies of reprogramming identify key drivers of reprogramming. • Advances in synthetic biology offer new tools for coordinating reprogramming processes.
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ayotune adebayo
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ayotune adebayo
202
Authors: Wang, Xin, et al
Published: Jan 2021
Authors: Wang, Xin, et al
Published: Jan 2021
Human lifestyle and physiological variables on human disease risk have been revealed to be mediated by gut microbiota. Low concordance between many case-control studies for detecting disease-associated microbe existed and it is likely due to the limited sample size and the population-wide bias in human lifestyle and physiological variables. To infer association between whole gut microbiota and diseases accurately, we propose to build machine learning models by including both human variables and gut microbiota based on the American Gut Project data, the largest known publicly available human gut bacterial microbiota dataset. When the model's performance with both gut microbiota and human variables is better than the model with just human variables, the independent association of gut microbiota with the disease will be confirmed. We found that gut microbes showed different association strengths with different diseases. Adding gut microbiota into human variables enhanced the association strengths with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and unhealthy status; showed no effect on association strengths with Diabetes and IBS; reduced the association strengths with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, infection, lactose intolerance, cardiovascular disease and mental disorders. Our results suggested that although gut microbiota was reported to be associated with many diseases, a considerable proportion of these associations may be spurious. We also proposed a list of microbes as biomarkers to classify IBD and unhealthy status, and validated them by reference to previously published research
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Chukwuma Chidera
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Chukwuma Chidera
207
Authors: Saike He, Xiaolong Zheng, Daniel Zeng
Published: Jan 2016
Authors: Saike He, Xiaolong Zheng, Daniel Zeng
Published: Jan 2016
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Emeka A. Ezewudo
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Emeka A. Ezewudo
201
Authors: Lukas Hübner, Alexey M Kozlov, Demian Hespe, Peter Sanders, Alexandros Stamatakis
Published: Jan 2021
Authors: Lukas Hübner, Alexey M Kozlov, Demian Hespe, Peter Sanders, Alexandros Stamatakis
Published: Jan 2021
Phylogenetic trees are now routinely inferred on large scale HPC systems with thousands of cores as the parallel scalability of phylogenetic inference tools has improved over the past years to cope with the molecular data avalanche. Thus, the parallel fault tolerance of phylogenetic inference tools has become a relevant challenge. To this end, we explore parallel fault tolerance mechanisms and algorithms, the software modifications required, and the performance penalties induced via enabling parallel fault tolerance by example of RAxML-NG, the successor of the widely used RAxML tool for maximum likelihood based phylogenetic tree inference. We find that the slowdown induced by the necessary additional recovery mechanisms in RAxML-NG is on average 2%. The overall slowdown by using these recovery mechanisms in conjunction with a fault tolerant MPI implementation amounts to 8% on average for large empirical datasets. Via failure simulations, we show that RAxML-NG can successfully recover from multiple simultaneous failures, subsequent failures, failures during recovery, and failures during checkpointing. Recoveries are automatic and transparent to the user. The modified fault tolerant RAxML-NG code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/lukashuebner/ft-raxml-ng
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Chukwuma Chidera
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Chukwuma Chidera
201
Authors: Herbert, Sébastien, et al
Published: Jan 2021
Authors: Herbert, Sébastien, et al
Published: Jan 2021
Quantitative imaging of epithelial tissues prompts for bioimage analysis tools that are widely applicable and accurate. In the case of imaging 3D tissues, a common post- processing step consists in projecting the acquired 3D volume on a 2D plane mapping the tissue surface. Indeed, while segmenting the tissue cells is amenable on 2D projections, it is still very difficult and cumbersome in 3D. However, for many specimen and models used in Developmental and Cell Biology, the complex content of the image volume surrounding the epithelium in a tissue often reduces the visibility of the biological object in the projection, compromising its subsequent analysis. In addition, the projection will distort the geometry of the tissue and can lead to strong artifacts in the morphology measurement. Here we introduce DProj a user-friendly tool- box built to robustly project epithelia on their 2D surface from 3D volumes, and to produce accurate morphology measurement corrected for the projection distortion, even for very curved tis- sues. DProj is built upon two components. LocalZProjector* is a user-friendly and configurable Fiji plugin that generates 2D projections and height-maps from potentially large 3D stacks (larger than 40 GB per time-point) by only incorporating the signal of interest, despite a possibly complex image content. DeProj** is a MATLAB tool that generates correct morphology measurements by combining the height-map output (such as the one offered by LocalZProjector) and the results of the cell segmentation on the 2D projection. In this paper we demonstrate DProj effectiveness over a wide range of different biological samples. We then compare its performance and accuracy against similar existing tools. We find that LocalZProjector performs well even in situations where the volume to project contains spurious structures. We show that it can process large images without a pre-processing step. We study the impact of geometrical distortions on morphological measurements induced by the projection. We measured very large distortions which are then corrected by DeProj, providing accurate outputs. *https://gitlab.pasteur.fr/iah-public/LocalZProjector **https://gitlab.pasteur.fr/iah-public/DeProj
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Chukwuma Chidera
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