Marine plants and animals should still be thriving in ocean waters, but they are not. We have lost 50% of all marine life over the last 70 years. The GOES team has used its collective professional and academic experience to undertake further analysis of the peer reviewed and published data to explore the less obvious reasons for this decline and its implications for climate and humanity. In our view, this loss of marine life is directly related to the drop ocean pH and the ‘chemical revolution’ which began in 1950, a decline which is continuing today at a rate of 1% year-on-year despite there being ideal conditions for growth. There is no doubt that it is the tiny ocean planktonic plants and animals that regulate our climate, but the planet’s largest ecosystem seems to be ignored as one of the tools to address climate change. Every second breath we take comes from marine photosynthesis, a process which also uses 60-90% of our carbon dioxide. If we have lost 50% of the very thing that regulates the climate, surely it is time to stop, take a fresh look at ocean chemistry and biodiversity and ask ourselves some fundamental questions: “Why have we lost this level of marine life? Why is the decline continuing? What does this mean for our climate and humanity? Of particular concern from a climate change perspective is the level of carbonic acid in the oceans, which is the result of atmospheric carbon dioxide being dissolved into the oceans. In the 1940’s pH was 8.2, but in 2020, pH had dropped to it 8.04, meaning the ocean is becoming more acidic. If there are no plants to use the ‘carbon’ for photosynthesis, this leaves unused carbonic acid to move the pH downwards. Reports from respected institutes around the globe, flag an acceleration of the ocean acidification process, which will result in the loss of more marine plants and animals, especially those that have carbonate shells and body structures (aragonite) based. These same reports forecast that in 25 years, pH will drop to 7.95 (2045) and with this, they estimate 80% to 90% of all remaining marine life will be lost – that in the GOES team’s opionion is a tipping point; a planetary boundary which must not be exceeded if humanity is to survive. Let’s be clear: If by some miracle the world achieves Net Zero by 2045, evidence from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) BioAcid report  report demonstrates that this reduction will not be enough to stop a drop in ocean to pH 7.95. If the level of marine life (both plants and animal) is reduced, then the oceans’ ability to lockout carbon into the abyss is depleted. It is clear to the GOES team that if we only pursue carbon mitigation strategies and don’t do more to regenerate plant and animal life in oceans, we will reach a tipping point, a planetary boundary from which there will be no return, because all life on Earth depends upon the largest ecosystem on the planet. Humanity will suffer terribly from global warming, but it must be understood that the oceans are already showing signs of instability today at pH8.04, but pH 7.95 represents the tipping point.
The objective of the current study was to investigate the associations between lifetime classic psychedelic use and cardiometabolic diseases. Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2005–2014), the present study examined the associations between lifetime classic psychedelic use and two types of cardiometabolic disease: heart disease and diabetes. Respondents who reported having tried a classic psychedelic at least once in their lifetime had lower odds of heart disease in the past year (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.77 (0.65–0.92), p = .006) and lower odds of diabetes in the past year (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.88 (0.78–0.99), p = .036). Classic psychedelic use might be beneficial for cardiometabolic health, but more research is needed to investigate potential causal pathways of classic psychedelics on cardiometabolic diseases.
Strong light–matter coupling provides a promising path for the control of quantum matter where the latter is routinely described from first principles. However, combining the quantized nature of light with this ab initio tool set is challenging and merely developing as the coupled light–matter Hilbert space is conceptually different and computational cost quickly becomes overwhelming. In this work, we provide a nonperturbative photon-free formulation of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in the long-wavelength limit, which is formulated solely on the matter Hilbert space and can serve as an accurate starting point for such ab initio methods. The present formulation is an extension of quantum mechanics that recovers the exact results of QED for the zero- and infinite-coupling limit and the infinite-frequency as well as the homogeneous limit, and we can constructively increase its accuracy. We show how this formulation can be used to devise approximations for quantum-electrodynamical density-functional theory (QEDFT), which in turn also allows us to extend the ansatz to the full minimal-coupling problem and to nonadiabatic situations. Finally, we provide a simple local density–type functional that takes the strong coupling to the transverse photon degrees of freedom into account and includes the correct frequency and polarization dependence. This QEDFT functional accounts for the quantized nature of light while remaining computationally simple enough to allow its application to a large range of systems. All approximations allow the seamless application to periodic systems.
Hydrodynamic phenomena can be observed with light thanks to the analogy between quantum gases and nonlinear optics. In this Letter, we report an experimental study of the superfluid-like properties of light in a (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear optical mesh lattice, where the arrival time of optical pulses plays the role of a synthetic spatial dimension. A spatially narrow defect at rest is used to excite sound waves in the fluid of light and measure the sound speed. The critical velocity for superfluidity is probed by looking at the threshold in the deposited energy by a moving defect, above which the apparent superfluid behavior breaks down. Our observations establish optical mesh lattices as a promising platform to study fluids of light in novel regimes of interdisciplinary interest, including non-Hermitian and/or topological physics.
Using real-world evidence in biomedical research, an indispensable complement to clinical trials, requires access to large quantities of patient data that are typically held separately by multiple healthcare institutions. We propose FAMHE, a novel federated analytics system that, based on multiparty homomorphic encryption (MHE), enables privacy-preserving analyses of distributed datasets by yielding highly accurate results without revealing any intermediate data. We demonstrate the applicability of FAMHE to essential biomedical analysis tasks, including Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in oncology and genome-wide association studies in medical genetics. Using our system, we accurately and efficiently reproduce two published centralized studies in a federated setting, enabling biomedical insights that are not possible from individual institutions alone. Our work represents a necessary key step towards overcoming the privacy hurdle in enabling multi-centric scientific collaborations.
The conversion of CO2 into functional materials under ambient conditions is a major challenge to realize a carbon-neutral society. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have been extensively studied as designable porous materials. Despite the fact that CO2 is an attractive renewable resource, the synthesis of MOFs from CO2 remains unexplored. Chemical inertness of CO2 has hampered its conversion into typical MOF linkers such as carboxylates without high energy reactants and/or harsh conditions. Here, we present a one-pot conversion of CO2 into highly porous crystalline MOFs at ambient temperature and pressure. Cubic [Zn4O(piperazine dicarbamate)3] is synthesized via in situ formation of bridging dicarbamate linkers from piperazines and CO2 and shows high surface areas (∼2366 m2 g–1) and CO2 contents (>30 wt %). Whereas the dicarbamate linkers are thermodynamically unstable by themselves and readily release CO2, the formation of an extended coordination network in the MOF lattices stabilizes the linker enough to demonstrate stable permanent porosity.
We present radiance regression functions for fast rendering of global illumination in scenes with dynamic local light sources. A radiance regression function (RRF) represents a non-linear mapping from local and contextual attributes of surface points, such as position, viewing direction, and lighting condition, to their indirect illumination values. The RRF is obtained from precomputed shading samples through regression analysis, which determines a function that best fits the shading data. For a given scene, the shading samples are precomputed by an offline renderer. The key idea behind our approach is to exploit the nonlinear coherence of the indirect illumination data to make the RRF both compact and fast to evaluate. We model the RRF as a multilayer acyclic feed-forward neural network, which provides a close functional approximation of the indirect illumination and can be efficiently evaluated at run time. To effectively model scenes with spatially variant material properties, we utilize an augmented set of attributes as input to the neural network RRF to reduce the amount of inference that the network needs to perform. To handle scenes with greater geometric complexity, we partition the input space of the RRF model and represent the subspaces with separate, smaller RRFs that can be evaluated more rapidly. As a result, the RRF model scales well to increasingly complex scene geometry and material variation. Because of its compactness and ease of evaluation, the RRF model enables real-time rendering with full global illumination effects, including changing caustics and multiple-bounce high-frequency glossy interreflections.
Despite essentially identical crystallography and equilibrium structuring of water, nanoscopic channels composed of hexagonal boron nitride and graphite exhibit an order-of-magnitude difference in fluid slip. We investigate this difference using molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrating that its origin is in the distinct chemistries of the two materials. In particular, the presence of polar bonds in hexagonal boron nitride, absent in graphite, leads to Coulombic interactions between the polar water molecules and the wall. We demonstrate that this interaction is manifested in a large typical lateral force experienced by a layer of oriented hydrogen atoms in the vicinity of the wall, leading to the enhanced friction in hexagonal boron nitride. The fluid adhesion to the wall is dominated by dispersive forces in both materials, leading to similar wettabilities. Our results rationalize recent observations that the difference in frictional characteristics of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride cannot be explained on the basis of the minor differences in their wettabilities.
Neuroinflammation, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is well-established in a subset of people with schizophrenia, with significant increases in inflammatory markers including several cytokines. Yet the cause(s) of cortical inflammation in schizophrenia remains unknown. Clues as to potential microenvironmental triggers and/or intracellular deficits in immunoregulation may be gleaned from looking further upstream of effector immune molecules to transcription factors that control inflammatory gene expression. Here, we focus on the ‘master immune regulator’ nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and review evidence in support of NF-κB dysregulation causing or contributing to neuroinflammation in patients. We discuss the utility of ‘immune biotyping’ as a tool to analyse immune-related transcripts and proteins in patient tissue, and the insights into cortical NF-κB in schizophrenia revealed by immune biotyping compared to studies treating patients as a single, homogenous group. Though the ubiquitous nature of NF-κB presents several hurdles for drug development, targeting this key immunoregulator with novel or repurposed therapeutics in schizophrenia is a relatively underexplored area that could aid in reducing symptoms of patients with active neuroinflammation.
Intermetallic nanocrystals are a large family of emerging materials with extensive applications in many fields. Yet, a generalized synthetic method for intermetallic nanocrystals is lacking. Here, we report the development of a colloidal synthesis method based on amalgamation of monometallic nanocrystal seeds with low–melting point metals. We use this approach to achieve crystalline and compositionally uniform intermetallic nanocrystals of Au-Ga, Ag-Ga, Cu-Ga, Ni-Ga, Pd-Ga, Pd-In, and Pd-Zn compounds. We demonstrate both compositional tunability across the phase spaces (e.g., AuGa2, AuGa, Au7Ga2, and Ga-doped Au), size tunability (e.g., 14.0-, 7.6-, and 3.8-nm AuGa2), and size uniformity (e.g., 5.4% size deviations). This approach makes it possible to systematically achieve size- and composition-controlled intermetallic nanocrystals, opening up a multitude of possibilities for these materials. Seed amalgamation reaction unlocks a large family of intermetallic nanocrystals with excellent size and composition control. Seed amalgamation reaction unlocks a large family of intermetallic nanocrystals with excellent size and composition control.