Negative space, also known as whitespace, refers to the unmarked areas of the page. Collectively, it is the margins and the gaps between text blocks and images. Whitespace is as much a part of a composition as the titles, words and pictures. The Swiss typographer Jan Tschichold calls whitespace 'the lungs of a good design'1. In addition to giving elements breathing room, judicious use of whitespace can dramatically improve the visual appeal and effectiveness of figures, posters and slides.
Gestalt principles of perception are theories proposed by German psychologists in the 1920s to explain how people organize visual information1. Gestalt is a German word meaning shape or form. The principles describe the various ways we tend to visually assemble individual objects into groups or 'unified wholes'. They are highly relevant to the design of charts and graphs as well as the reports that contain them.
Layout is the act of arranging text and images on the page according to an overall aesthetic scheme and for the purpose of clarifying a presentation. In graphic arts, it is the elephant in the room; layout underlies everything we do when we communicate visually. Well-structured content can guide readers through complex information, but when the material we present lacks order, it can confuse or, worse yet, agitate readers trying to make sense of the material.
Background The World Health Organization has warned that cigarette smoking is an avoidable risk factor for endothelial injury. Myogenin might play a role in muscle metabolism and energy utilization. Electrolytes and minerals are involved in most cellular activities. The objective of this study was to compare myogenin and electrolyte levels between adult male cigarette smokers (CS) and non-smokers (NS). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 90 subjects, consisting of 55 CS and 35 NS. The sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine myogenin levels while the ion-selective electrode method was used to determine electrolyte levels. The levels of sodium, potassium, and chloride and the body mass index (BMI) were measured. Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used to analyse the data. Results The BMI of CS was significantly lower than that of NS (p
Color can add dimensionality and richness to scientific communications. In figures, color is typically used to differentiate information into classes. The challenge is picking colors that are discriminable. A systematic approach to choosing colors can help us find a lineup effective for color coding.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type. Like a person's speaking style and skill, the quality of our treatment of letters on a page can influence how people respond to our message. It is an essential act of encoding and interpretation, linking what we say to what people see.
Hi all! I am working on an extension of Kohli&Grover's (2012) IT value co-creation theory in multi-firm environments. There is clearly a gap in the literature on the role of human & knowledge artefacts. I was wondering, can you suggest any recent papers (since 2019) linking IT value co-creation research to organizational learning theories?
We study mentorship in scientific collaborations, where a junior scientist is supported by potentially multiple senior collaborators, without them necessarily having formal supervisory roles. We identify 3 million mentor–protégé pairs and survey a random sample, verifying that their relationship involved some form of mentorship. We find that mentorship quality predicts the scientific impact of the papers written by protégés post mentorship without their mentors. We also find that increasing the proportion of female mentors is associated not only with a reduction in post-mentorship impact of female protégés, but also a reduction in the gain of female mentors. While current diversity policies encourage same-gender mentorships to retain women in academia, our findings raise the possibility that opposite-gender mentorship may actually increase the impact of women who pursue a scientific career. These findings add a new perspective to the policy debate on how to best elevate the status of women in science.