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5
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Hiram L. Smith
Journal: Language Variation and Change
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Hiram L. Smith
Journal: Language Variation and Change
Abstract It is widely debated whether creole languages form a typological class; however, crosslinguistic generalizations from functional typology are seldom tested in creoles. Typological studies report a strong crosslinguistic tendency for asymmetries in habitual grammatical expressions across the present and past temporal reference domains (Bybee, 1994:245–8; Bybee, Perkins, & Pagliuca, 1994:151–60). This study analyzes two linguistic variants, preverbal asé and zero, which compete for habitual marking in Palenquero Creole (Colombia). I ask here: To what degree does the linguistic patterning of these forms conform to the crosslinguistic tendency? Results show that, despite Palenquero having widely cited creole features (e.g., preverbal markers and bare verb stems), the asymmetrical expression, distribution, and relative ordering of forms in the variable contexts closely align with crosslinguistic predictions for habituals, thus giving convincing evidence of typological markedness and not a Creole Prototype.
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3
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Wafula Yenjela
Journal: Tydskrif vir Letterkunde
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Wafula Yenjela
Journal: Tydskrif vir Letterkunde
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1
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Faten Alqahtani
Journal: English Language Teaching
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Faten Alqahtani
Journal: English Language Teaching
Existing literature indicates that assessment is a critical aspect of teaching and learning language; the outcomes of testing are vital. The history of assessment can be traced back to when exams primarily served two significant purposes in China: choosing candidates for admission into government offices and preventing corruption. Washback as a concept can be traced back to the 1990s. It was advanced by Alderson and Wall in 1993 as a force that obliges test-takers and tutors to engage in particular tasks or activities due to exams. In this regard, washback is an impact that a test has on the teaching and learning process. High-stakes exams like the LOBELA demonstrate the significance of washback in the Saudi English-as-a-foreign-language context. This paper explores the mechanisms through which washback occurs in teaching and learning processes, ways to determine its validity, and different types of washback. It further highlights the impact of washback in promoting teaching and learning processes, as well as the role it plays in policy development in the educational system.   
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Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Louise Baird, Nicholas Evans, Simon J. Greenhill
Journal: Journal of the International Phonetic Association
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Louise Baird, Nicholas Evans, Simon J. Greenhill
Journal: Journal of the International Phonetic Association
Language documentation faces a persistent and pervasive problem: How much material is enough to represent a language fully? How much text would we need to sample the full phoneme inventory of a language? In the phonetic/phonemic domain, what proportion of the phoneme inventory can we expect to sample in a text of a given length? Answering these questions in a quantifiable way is tricky, but asking them is necessary. The cumulative collection of Illustrative Texts published in the Illustration series in this journal over more than four decades (mostly renditions of the ‘North Wind and the Sun’) gives us an ideal dataset for pursuing these questions. Here we investigate a tractable subset of the above questions, namely: What proportion of a language’s phoneme inventory do these texts enable us to recover, in the minimal sense of having at least one allophone of each phoneme? We find that, even with this low bar, only three languages (Modern Greek, Shipibo and the Treger dialect of Breton) attest all phonemes in these texts. Unsurprisingly, these languages sit at the low end of phoneme inventory sizes (respectively 23, 24 and 36 phonemes). We then estimate the rate at which phonemes are sampled in the Illustrative Texts and extrapolate to see how much text it might take to display a language’s full inventory. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for linguistics in its quest to represent the world’s phonetic diversity, and for JIPA in its design requirements for Illustrations and in particular whether supplementary panphonic texts should be included.
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0
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Cristina Barbieri, Vittorio Mete
Journal: Modern Italy
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Authors: Cristina Barbieri, Vittorio Mete
Journal: Modern Italy
This article examines kidnappings for ransom by the ’Ndrangheta in Italy from the more measured perspective that the passage of time allows. To investigate the importance and characteristics of this phenomenon, we analyse a new database compiled from various sources. We put forward an explanation of the way that the kidnapping era ended that derives both from statistical analysis of the 654 instances surveyed and from a case study (the abduction of Cesare Casella). Within this analysis, we award significant weight to the changing political context and to two particular factors: the crime's politicisation under new electoral pressure, and the behaviour of law enforcement agencies. The two factors often regarded as the principal explanations for the end of kidnapping, legislation on the freezing of assets and the appeal of the drugs trade, are treated here as simply aspects of the overall picture. The disappearance of this criminal practice seems to have followed a hiatus in relationships and a reciprocal show of strength. Although the repertoire of state threats, notably military action and prison sentences, was substantial, the political value of victims’ lives and the weakness of the government were powerful weapons for the final cohort of kidnappers.
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8
Date Added: May 14, 2021
Authors: Daniela Jaramillo-Dent, Paloma Contreras-Pulido, M. Amor Pérez-Rodríguez
Journal: European Journal of Communication
Date Added: May 14, 2021
Authors: Daniela Jaramillo-Dent, Paloma Contreras-Pulido, M. Amor Pérez-Rodríguez
Journal: European Journal of Communication
Ephemeral media has become a staple of today’s social media ecology. This study advances the first exploratory analysis of Instagram Stories as a format for political communication. Through an initial content analysis of 832 stories in three verified Vox accounts and a secondary content and discourse analysis of 114 stories, we delve into the strategies used by right-wing party Vox in Spain to portray immigration as an issue for ideological positioning. The findings shed light onto the ways in which the representation of migrants is employed as an instrument for anti-migratory policy support, through the construction of a very specific profile of a migrant in terms of age and gender and the exclusion of significant migrant populations from the argument. Moreover, the party employs the content creation functionalities of Instagram Stories to construct arguments and storylines where diverse information sources converge, effectively bypassing traditional media and reaching their supporter base directly.
7
Date Added: May 14, 2021
Authors: Åsta Haukås, Sarah Mercer
Journal: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching
Date Added: May 14, 2021
Authors: Åsta Haukås, Sarah Mercer
Journal: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching
8
Date Added: May 14, 2021
Authors: Ruff, Christopher B., et al
Journal: Journal of Human Evolution
Date Added: May 14, 2021
Authors: Ruff, Christopher B., et al
Journal: Journal of Human Evolution
86
Date Added: May 31, 2021
Authors: Gardner Bovingdon
Journal: Twentieth-Century China
Date Added: May 31, 2021
Authors: Gardner Bovingdon
Journal: Twentieth-Century China
100
Date Added: May 11, 2021
Authors: Tyler Volk
Journal: Biosemiotics
Date Added: May 11, 2021
Authors: Tyler Volk
Journal: Biosemiotics
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