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51
Date Added: May 5, 2021
Date Added: May 5, 2021
Metoposaurids are a widespread and ubiquitous constituent of Late Triassic non-marine paleoenvironments. In North America, this group is practically the only large-bodied temnospondyl clade, and is particularly well documented from the American southwest and south-central regions (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas). However, metoposaurids are poorly documented from eastern North America, with fragmentary, doubtfully diagnostic historical material such as “ Dictyocephalus elegans ” Leidy, 1856 and “ Eupelor durus ” Cope, 1866. The Zions View (early Norian?) locality in Pennsylvania preserves more-complete material, which previous workers noted as belonging to “ Buettneria perfecta ” Case, 1922 (= Anaschisma browni Branson, 1905). However, the material has never been described in a fashion that characterizes the anatomy or that justifies the taxonomic assignment, yet it would represent the most complete material in eastern North America and a substantial expansion of this taxon's geographic range. Here we redescribe the Zions View metoposaurid material in detail, differentiating it from Calamops paludosus Sinclair, 1917, the only other Late Triassic temnospondyl from the eastern seaboard, and demonstrating confident affinities with A . browni . Our study is the first to properly justify the taxonomic referral, underscoring the broader importance of proper documentation of voucher specimens, especially for potential geographic outliers. Anaschisma browni is thus the most widely dispersed metoposaurid. Its easternmost documentation underscores the importance of the undersampled and understudied metoposaurid record on the eastern seaboard for understanding the development of a metoposaurid zone of exclusivity in North America and demonstrates the need for further exploration to refine conceptualizations of Late Triassic tetrapod evolution.
3
Date Added: May 10, 2021
Authors: Abrams, Michael J., et al
Date Added: May 10, 2021
Authors: Abrams, Michael J., et al
Can limb regeneration be induced? Few have pursued this question, and an evolutionarily conserved strategy has yet to emerge. This study reports a strategy for inducing regenerative response in appendages, which works across three species that span the animal phylogeny. In Cnidaria, the frequency of appendage regeneration in the moon jellyfish was increased by feeding with the amino acid L-leucine and the growth hormone insulin. In insects, the same strategy induced tibia regeneration in adult . Finally, in mammals, L-leucine and sucrose administration induced digit regeneration in adult mice, including dramatically from mid-phalangeal amputation. The conserved effect of L-leucine and insulin/sugar suggests a key role for energetic parameters in regeneration induction. The simplicity by which nutrient supplementation can induce appendage regeneration provides a testable hypothesis across animals.
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109
Date Added: May 2, 2021
Authors: Richard M. Levenson, Elizabeth A. Krupinski, Victor M. Navarro, Edward A. Wasserman
Date Added: May 2, 2021
Authors: Richard M. Levenson, Elizabeth A. Krupinski, Victor M. Navarro, Edward A. Wasserman
Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)—which share many visual system properties with humans—can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds’ histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task—namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)—the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds’ successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools.
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0
Date Added: May 9, 2021
Authors: Ioannis Angelis, Vassilios Moussis, Demokritos C. Tsoukatos, Vassilios Tsikaris
Date Added: May 9, 2021
Authors: Ioannis Angelis, Vassilios Moussis, Demokritos C. Tsoukatos, Vassilios Tsikaris
: The main role of platelets is to contribute to hemostasis. However, under pathophysiological conditions, platelet activation may lead to thrombotic events of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, anti-thrombotic treatment is important in patients with cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on a platelet receptor, a transmembrane protein, the Multidrug Resistance Protein 4, MRP4, which contributes to platelet activation by extruding endogenous molecules responsible for their activation and accumulation. The regulation of the intracellular concentration levels of these molecules by MRP4 turned to make the protein suspicious and, at the same time, an interesting regulatory factor of normal platelet function. Especially, the possible role of MRP4 in the excretion of xenobiotic and antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin is discussed, thus imparting platelet aspirin tolerance and correlating the protein with the ineffectiveness of aspirin antiplatelet therapy. Based on the above, this review finally underlines that the development of a highly selective and targeted strategy for platelet MRP4 inhibition will also lead to inhibition of platelet activation and accumulation.
3
Date Added: May 7, 2021
Authors: Ping Chen, Wei Li, Guohong Li
Date Added: May 7, 2021
Authors: Ping Chen, Wei Li, Guohong Li
In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is packaged into chromatin in the nucleus. The accessibility of DNA is dependent on the chromatin structure and dynamics, which essentially control DNA-related processes, including transcription, DNA replication, and repair. All of the factors that affect the structure and dynamics of nucleosomes, the nucleosome–nucleosome interaction interfaces, and the binding of linker histones or other chromatin-binding proteins need to be considered to understand the organization and function of chromatin fibers. In this review, we provide a summary of recent progress on the structure of chromatin fibers in vitro and in the nucleus, highlight studies on the dynamic regulation of chromatin fibers, and discuss their related biological functions and abnormal organization in diseases.
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