Pericles Philippopoulos, Alessandro Ricottone, Carlos G. Oliver
Published: Nov 2019
The authors describe how DIPS would provide a new attack route they term "a Bubka attack" where the attacker finds multiple successive solutions to P and uses these to get an advantage in hashing for multiple blocks in a row
This paper proposes DIPS (Difficulty-based Incentives for Problem Solving), a simple modification of the
Bitcoin proof-of-work algorithm that rewards blockchain miners for solving optimization problems
of scientific interest.
Governance of blockchain communities is an emerging phenomenon, and involves interplay between a variety of different ecosystem stakeholders (software developers, PoW miners, PoS voters, cryptocurrency exchanges and payment providers, node operators, casual users and die-hard hodlers). The rules of the protocol dictate the relative power and influence of these groups.
Cryptocurrency relies on Free Open Source Software (FOSS) principles and practices, and can only work on open source principles. The cryptocurrency movement should be understood as part of the FOSS movement, or its successor.
The authors note how the accounting of transactions, a trust in immutable code and algorithms, and the leveraging of distributed crowds and publics around vast interoperable databases all relate to longstanding issues of importance for the field.
This paper constructs a typology of emerging blockchain applications, consider the domains in which they are applied, and identify distinguishing features of this new technology.
In this paper we survey a number of interesting applications of blockchain technology not related to cryptocurrencies. As a matter of fact, after an initial period of application to cryptocurrencies and to the financial world, blockchain technology has been successfully exploited in many other different scenarios, where its unique features allowed the definition of innovative and sometimes disruptive solutions. In particular, this paper takes into account the following application scenarios: end-to-end verifiable electronic voting, healthcare records management, identity management systems, access control systems, decentralized notary (with a focus on intellectual property protection) and supply chain management. For each of these, we firstly analyse the problem, the related requirements and the advantages the adoption of blockchain technology might bring. Then, we present a number of relevant solutions proposed in the literature both by academia and companies.