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107
Date Added: May 7, 2021
Date Added: May 7, 2021
Background The decision of whether to pursue a tenure-track faculty position has become increasingly difficult for undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral trainees considering a career in research. Trainees express concerns over job availability, financial insecurity, and other perceived challenges associated with pursuing an academic position. Methods To help further elucidate the benefits, challenges, and strategies for pursuing an academic career, a diverse sample of postdoctoral scholars (“postdocs”) from across the United States were asked to provide advice on pursuing a research career in academia in response to an open-ended survey question. 994 responses were qualitatively analyzed using both content and thematic analyses. 177 unique codes, 20 categories, and 10 subthemes emerged from the data and were generalized into two thematic areas: Life in Academia and Strategies for Success . Results On life in academia, postdoc respondents overwhelmingly agree that academia is most rewarding when you are truly passionate about scientific research and discovery. ‘Passion’ emerged as the most frequently cited code, referenced 189 times. Financial insecurity, work-life balance, securing grant funding, academic politics, and a competitive job market emerged as challenges of academic research. The survey respondents note that while passion and hard work are necessary, they are not always sufficient to overcome these challenges. The postdocs encourage trainees to be realistic about career expectations and to prepare broadly for career paths that align with their interests, skills, and values. Strategies recommended for perseverance include periodic self-reflection, mental health support, and carefully selecting mentors. Conclusions For early-career scientists along the training continuum, this advice deserves critical reflection before committing to an academic research career. For advisors and institutions, this work provides a unique perspective from postdoctoral scholars on elements of the academic training path that can be improved to increase retention, career satisfaction, and preparation for the scientific workforce.
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5
Date Added: May 11, 2021
Authors: Christine Damrau, Julien Colomb, Björn Brembs
Date Added: May 11, 2021
Authors: Christine Damrau, Julien Colomb, Björn Brembs
The biogenic amine octopamine (OA) and its precursor tyramine (TA) are involved in controlling a plethora of different physiological and behavioral processes. The tyramine- ß- hydroxylase ( t ß h ) gene encodes the enzyme catalyzing the last synthesis step from TA to OA. Here, we report differential dominance (from recessive to overdominant) of the putative null t ß h nM18 allele in 2 behavioral measures in Buridan’s paradigm (walking speed and stripe deviation) and in proboscis extension (sugar sensitivity) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . The behavioral analysis of transgenic t ß h expression experiments in mutant and wild-type flies as well as of OA and TA receptor mutants revealed a complex interaction of both aminergic systems. Our analysis suggests that the different neuronal networks responsible for the 3 phenotypes show differential sensitivity to t ß h gene expression levels. The evidence suggests that this sensitivity is brought about by a TA/OA opponent system modulating the involved neuronal circuits. This conclusion has important implications for standard transgenic techniques commonly used in functional genetics.
48
Date Added: May 8, 2021
Authors: Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto, et al
Date Added: May 8, 2021
Authors: Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto, et al
Understanding brain operation demands linking basic behavioral traits to cell-type specific dynamics of different brain-wide subcircuits. This requires a system to classify the basic operational modes of neurons and circuits. Single-cell phenotyping of firing behavior during ongoing oscillations in vivo has provided a large body of evidence on entorhinal–hippocampal function, but data are dispersed and diverse. Here, we mined literature to search for information regarding the phase-timing dynamics of over 100 hippocampal/entorhinal neuron types defined in Hippocampome.org . We identified missing and unresolved pieces of knowledge (e.g., the preferred theta phase for a specific neuron type) and complemented the dataset with our own new data. By confronting the effect of brain state and recording methods, we highlight the equivalences and differences across conditions and offer a number of novel observations. We show how a heuristic approach based on oscillatory features of morphologically identified neurons can aid in classifying extracellular recordings of single cells and discuss future opportunities and challenges towards integrating single-cell phenotypes with circuit function.
50
Date Added: May 7, 2021
Authors: Katherine L. Mansfield, Jeanette Wyneken, Jiangang Luo
Date Added: May 7, 2021
Authors: Katherine L. Mansfield, Jeanette Wyneken, Jiangang Luo
In-water behaviour and long-term movements of oceanic-stage juvenile sea turtles are not well described or quantified. This is owing to technological or logistical limitations of tracking small, fast-growing animals across long distances and time periods within marine habitats. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first long-term offshore tracks of oceanic green turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) in western North Atlantic waters. Using a tag attachment technique developed specifically for young (less than 1 year old) green turtles, we satellite-tracked 21 oceanic-stage green turtles (less than 19 cm straight carapace length) up to 152 days using small, solar-powered transmitters. We verify that oceanic-stage green turtles: (i) travel to and remain within oceanic waters; (ii) often depart the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre currents, orienting towards waters associated with the Sargasso Sea; (iii) remain at the sea surface, using thermally beneficial habitats that promote growth and survival of young turtles; and (iv) green turtles orient differently compared to same stage loggerhead turtles ( Caretta caretta ). Combined with satellite tracks of oceanic-stage loggerhead turtles, our work identifies the Sargasso Sea as an important nursery habitat for North Atlantic sea turtles, supporting a growing body of research that suggests oceanic-stage sea turtles are behaviourally more complex than previously assumed.
2
Date Added: May 11, 2021
Authors: Stojanovic, Filip, et al
Date Added: May 11, 2021
Authors: Stojanovic, Filip, et al
The development of effective therapies as well as early, molecular diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is impeded by the lack of understanding of the underlying pathological mechanisms. Metabolomics studies of body fluids as well as brain tissues have shown major changes in metabolic profiles of Alzheimer’s patients. However, with analysis performed at the late stages of the disease it is not possible to distinguish causes and consequence. The mouse model APP/PS1 expresses a mutant amyloid precursor protein resulting in early Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation as well as many resulting physiological changes including changes in metabolic profile and metabolism. Analysis of metabolic profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of APP/PS1 mouse model can provide information about metabolic changes in these body fluids caused by Aβ accumulation. Using our novel method for analysis of correlation and mathematical ranking of significant correlations between metabolites in CSF and blood, we have explored changes in metabolite correlation and connectedness in APP/PS1 and wild type mice. Metabolites concentration and correlation changes in CSF, blood and across the blood brain barrier determined in this work are affected by the production of amyloid plaque. Metabolite changes observed in the APP/PS1 mouse model are the response to the mutation causing plaque formation, not the cause for the plaque suggesting that they are less relevant in the context of early treatment and prevention then the metabolic changes observed only in humans.
2
Date Added: May 11, 2021
Authors: Cornelius D. Jamison, Margaret Greenwood-Ericksen, Caroline R. Richardson, Hwajung Choi, Tammy Chang
Date Added: May 11, 2021
Authors: Cornelius D. Jamison, Margaret Greenwood-Ericksen, Caroline R. Richardson, Hwajung Choi, Tammy Chang
Background The United States is experiencing a surge in C hlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections representing a critical need to improve sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and treatment programs. To understand where patients with STIs seek healthcare, we evaluated the relationship between CT infections and the place where individuals report usually receiving healthcare. Methods Our study used a nationally representative sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2016. The study population is adult patients, aged 18 to 39 years in whom a urine CT screen was obtained. Logistic regression models were used to determine if location of usual healthcare was predictive of a positive urine CT screen result. Models were adjusted for known confounders including age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and insurance status. Results In this nationally representative sample (n = 19,275; weighted n = 85.8 million), 1.9% of individuals had a positive urine CT result. Participants reported usually going to the doctor’s office (70.3%), “no place” (24.8%), Emergency Department (ED) (3.3%), or “other” place (1.7%) for healthcare. In adjusted models, the predicted probability of having a positive urine CT result is higher (4.9% vs 3.2%, p = 0.022; OR = 1.58) among those that reported the ED as their usual place for healthcare compared to those that reported going to a doctor’s office or clinic. Conclusions Individuals having a positive urine CT screen are associated with using the ED as a usual source for healthcare. Understanding this association has the potential to improve STI clinical and policy interventions as the ED may be a critical site in combatting the record high rates of STIs.
1
Date Added: Apr 30, 2021
Authors: Xiaohui Guo, Astrid Endler, Christian Poll, Sven Marhan, Liliane Ruess
Date Added: Apr 30, 2021
Authors: Xiaohui Guo, Astrid Endler, Christian Poll, Sven Marhan, Liliane Ruess
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