The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a rapid shift to full-time remote work for many information workers. Viewing this shift as a natural experiment in which some workers were already working remotely before the pandemic enables us to separate the effects of firm-wide remote work from other pandemic-related confounding factors. Here, we use rich data on the emails, calendars, instant messages, video/audio calls and workweek hours of 61,182 US Microsoft employees over the first six months of 2020 to estimate the causal effects of firm-wide remote work on collaboration and communication. Our results show that firm-wide remote work caused the collaboration network of workers to become more static and siloed, with fewer bridges between disparate parts. Furthermore, there was a decrease in synchronous communication and an increase in asynchronous communication. Together, these effects may make it harder for employees to acquire and share new information across the network.
Shared e-scooter systems were first introduced in 2017 and have since been spreading around the world as a sustainable mode of transport. The success of this mode is also due to new urban mobility strategies and plans, such as the European Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy, which relies on non-pollutant modes. To display the range of effects that can be achieved in urban mobility through the proper implementation of shared e-scooter systems, a systematic literature review and a case study were performed. It was found that this shared system can help cities with environmental issues, such as reducing air pollution, reducing inequality in access to transport, promoting money-saving, and improving mobility resilience. During the Covid-19 pandemic, shared e-scooters became a great asset in many cities worldwide, because they promote social distancing and help cities not to rely only on private cars to replace public transport rides, especially for short-distance trips. In the case study of Braga, it was found that the city still relies on shared e-scooter modes as a mobility option after the pandemic, also promoting special fares for people to start using the service.
Hi all! I am working on an extension of Kohli&Grover's (2012) IT value co-creation theory in multi-firm environments. There is clearly a gap in the literature on the role of human & knowledge artefacts. I was wondering, can you suggest any recent papers (since 2019) linking IT value co-creation research to organizational learning theories?
To consider the catastrophic situation of our environment, this environment sends lot of alarming events for us, not limited to the following: global warming, climate change, and pollution. Green purchasing behavior is one of the behaviors recommended to help sustain the environment. Three factors (social influence, environmental attitude, and environmental concern) are tested to see how they affect green purchasing behavior. A significant result was indicated between Social influence, Environmental concern and green purchasing behavior. The results provided empirical support to previous studies. Future research and limitation were discussed as well.
The transportation sector is a major factor contributing to climate change. Transportation Network Companies (TNC) may become part of solutions to reduce emissions and their drivers play an important role in doing so. This study aims to understand TNC driver’s perceptions of climate change, to understand how climate change and extreme weather affects their business and how they see their role in contributing to or mitigating climate change. We conducted an in-person survey of TNC drivers in Nevada, USA, and analyzed the derived information with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Among the 75 TNC drivers, almost half believe climate change is happening and is caused by human activities. We found TNC drivers and their business are affected by extreme weather events. Currently the drivers do not see their role in mitigating climate change and lack the awareness of green initiatives already in place by TNCs’. We conclude that TNCs could increase their climate change responsibility by providing driver incentives for cars with reduced emissions or by geographically expanding customer incentives for using sustainable TNC options such as car-pooling. By doing so, TNC may play a role in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and traffic congestion; thus, contributing to improved sustainable transportation practices.
Substantial research is required to ensure that micro-mobility ride sharing provides a better fulfilment of user needs. This study proposes a novel crowdsourcing model for the ride-sharing system where light vehicles such as scooters and bikes are crowdsourced. The proposed model is expected to solve the problem of charging and maintaining a large number of light vehicles where these efforts will be the responsibility of the crowd of suppliers. The proposed model consists of three entities: suppliers, customers, and a management party responsible for receiving, renting, booking, and demand matching with offered resources. It can allow suppliers to define the location of their private e-scooters/e-bikes and the period of time they are available for rent. Using a dataset of over 9 million e-scooter trips in Austin, Texas, we ran an agent-based simulation six times using three maximum battery ranges (i.e., 35, 45, and 60 km) and different numbers of e-scooters (e.g., 50 and 100) at each origin. Computational results show that the proposed model is promising and might be advantageous to shift the charging and maintenance efforts to a crowd of suppliers.
One of the essential points of food manufacturing in the industry and shelf life of the products is to improve the food traceability system. In recent years, the food traceability mechanism has become one of the emerging blockchain applications in order to improve the anti-counterfeiting area’s quality. Many food manufacturing systems have a low level of readability, scalability, and data accuracy. Similarly, this process is complicated in the supply chain and needs a lot of time for processing. The blockchain system creates a new ontology in the traceability system supply chain to deal with these issues. In this paper, a blockchain machine learning-based food traceability system (BMLFTS) is proposed in order to combine the new extension in blockchain, Machine Learning technology (ML), and fuzzy logic traceability system that is based on the shelf life management system for manipulating perishable food. The blockchain technology in the proposed system has been developed in order to address light-weight, evaporation, warehouse transactions, or shipping time. The blockchain data flow is designed to show the extension of ML at the level of food traceability. Finally, reliable and accurate data are used in a supply chain to improve shelf life.
Background: The use of electric scooters has increased considerably as they are an accessible means of transportation. The number of injuries from falls and collisions has risen significantly. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe demographics injury patterns of electric scooter accidents produced over one year. Methods: A prospective observational study of electric scooter- related injuries presented in the emergency room from May 2019 until May 2020. The inclusion criteria was based on the direct cause of injury produced while an electric scooter was in use. Demographic data, the use of a helmet or the lack thereof, accident mechanism, injury time, type of injury produced, and the treatment applied were collected. Results: Over the study period, 397 patients were identified with a total of 422 injuries. The mean age was 30.8 years, with 12.6% of patients being minors. The patients mainly presented in evening hours and in summertime at the emergency department. Of the total injuries seen, 46.9% were fractures. Some 25% of the total cases required surgery. Only 19% of the riders wore a helmet at the time of the accident. Most of the fractures were to the upper limbs (62.6%). There was a greater incidence of radius fractures. Conclusion: Injuries incurred while using electric scooters are an emerging phenomenon, despite existing regulations. In this study, most injuries occurred in young men and were due to falls from the vehicle. Nearly half of those injuries were fractures to the upper limbs. Surprisingly, 50% of the fractures required surgery.