Cisplatin is a well-known cancer chemotherapeutic agent but how extensively long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression is modulated by cisplatin is unknown. It is imperative to employ a comprehensive approach to obtain a better account of cisplatin-mediated changes in the expression of lncRNAs. In this study, we used a transcriptomics approach to profile lncRNAs in cisplatin-treated HeLa cells, which resulted in identification of 10,214 differentially expressed lncRNAs, of which 2,500 were antisense lncRNAs. For functional analyses, we knocked down one of the cisplatin inducible lncRNAs, death receptor 5 antisense (DR5-AS) lncRNA, which resulted in a morphological change in HeLa cell shape without inducing any cell death. A second round of transcriptomics-based profiling revealed differential expression of genes associated with immune system, motility and cell cycle in DR5-AS knockdown HeLa cells. Cellular analyses showed that DR5-AS reduced cell proliferation and caused a cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases. Moreover, DR5-AS knockdown reduced the invasive capacity of HeLa cells in zebrafish xenograft model. These results suggest that cisplatin-mediated pleiotropic effects, such as reduction in cell proliferation, metastasis and cell cycle arrest, may be mediated by lncRNAs.
Strong and durable anticancer immune responses are associated with the generation of activated cancer-specific T cells in the draining lymph nodes. However, cancer cells can colonize lymph nodes and drive tumour progression. Here, we show that lymphocytes fail to penetrate metastatic lesions in lymph nodes. In tissue from patients with breast, colon, and head and neck cancers, as well as in mice with spontaneously developing breast-cancer lymph-node metastases, we found that lymphocyte exclusion from nodal lesions is associated with the presence of solid stress caused by lesion growth, that solid stress induces reductions in the number of functional high endothelial venules in the nodes, and that relieving solid stress in the mice increased the presence of lymphocytes in lymph-node lesions by about 15-fold. Solid-stress-mediated impairment of lymphocyte infiltration into lymph-node metastases suggests a therapeutic route for overcoming T-cell exclusion during immunotherapy.
Family health history (FHx) is an effective tool for identifying patients at risk of hereditary cancer. Hereditary cancer clinical practice guidelines (CPG) contain criteria used to evaluate FHx and to make recommendations for genetic consultation. Comparing different CPGs used to evaluate a common set of FHx provides insight into how well the CPGs perform, the extent of agreement across guidelines, and how well they identify patients who should consider a cancer genetic consultation.
Many DNA-hypermethylated cancer genes are occupied by the Polycomb (PcG) repressor complex in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Their prevalence in the full spectrum of cancers, the exact context of chromatin involved, and their status in adult cell renewal systems are unknown. Using a genome-wide analysis, we demonstrate that ∼75% of hypermethylated genes are marked by PcG in the context of bivalent chromatin in both ESCs and adult stem/progenitor cells. A large number of these genes are key developmental regulators, and a subset, which we call the “DNA hypermethylation module,” comprises a portion of the PcG target genes that are down-regulated in cancer. Genes with bivalent chromatin have a low, poised gene transcription state that has been shown to maintain stemness and self-renewal in normal stem cells. However, when DNA-hypermethylated in tumors, we find that these genes are further repressed. We also show that the methylation status of these genes can cluster important subtypes of colon and breast cancers. By evaluating the subsets of genes that are methylated in different cancers with consideration of their chromatin status in ESCs, we provide evidence that DNA hypermethylation preferentially targets the subset of PcG genes that are developmental regulators, and this may contribute to the stem-like state of cancer. Additionally, the capacity for global methylation profiling to cluster tumors by phenotype may have important implications for further refining tumor behavior patterns that may ultimately aid therapeutic interventions.
B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is an emerging treatment option for multiple myeloma. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine its safety and clinical activity and to identify factors influencing these outcomes.
Anyone that knows which (co-)stimulatory domains have all been used in CAR-T cell constructs before? I think it would be nice to have a small overview.In addition, what domains have not yet been used but could be interesting to investigate their potential in novel CARs?