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14
Date Added: Jul 31, 2021
Date Added: Jul 31, 2021
Since ancient times, observers, including Babylonians, residents of the environs of Vesuvius, Japanese, have noted specific phenomena in the atmosphere, on the ground, in water and in the behavior of animals in anticipation of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. In the atmosphere, it is a haze, narrow dark cloud stripes of great length, black mists, slots in the clouds. The languages of the flame from the slots in the ground, hot springs, the change of river channels, various noises, excitement, the smell of hydrogen sulfide in standing waters, the mass release of fish from the water, the restless behavior of animals. Aristotle suggested that these phenomena in the atmosphere are caused by gas emissions from the Earth, Humboldt associated with seismogenic changes in atmospheric electricity. Later, researchers linked them to activated faults of the earth's crust, the local concentration of ions in radiation. Modern geological analysis showed the presence of methane in those areas, faults of the earth's crust, and the growth of electromagnetic fields several times before earthquakes. However, the decryption of atmospheric precursors remained at the level of author decryption of satellite images of atmospheric formations, which did not exclude the mass of noise estimates, for example, orographic and long-range clouds, aircraft traces. There was no identification of the "blackness" of clouds and fogs. Our analysis of the spectral characteristics of atmospheric formations showed that the water intake of some narrow extended clouds above the faults of the earth's crust is zero, in their zone the local minimum of the integral humidity of the atmosphere. The phenomenological representation of the components of solar radiation made it possible to identify the characteristic size of the cloud atmospheric aerosol from spectral data from the NOAA series, thereby concluding the predominantly dry dust composition of seismogenic clouds, their "blackness." The presence of narrow extended breaks in wet meteorological clouds over activated faults of the Earth's crust is also associated with the reaction of atmospheric moisture to electromagnetic disturbances - clouds diverge, visible dust formations do not form since atmospheric dust is previously "disassembled" by meteorological clouds into condensation nuclei. The discussed atmospheric anomalies precede local earthquakes.
2
Date Added: Jul 30, 2021
Date Added: Jul 30, 2021
Constraining the long-term variability and average of the Earth's magnetic field strength is fundamental to understanding the characteristics and behavior of the geomagnetic field. Questions remain about the strength of the average field, and the relationship between strength and reversal frequency, due to the dispersion of data from key time intervals. Here, we focus on the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS; 121-84 Ma), during which there were no reversals. We present new intensity results from 41 submarine basaltic glass (SBG) sites collected on the Nicoya Peninsula and Murcièlago Islands, Costa Rica. New and revised 40Ar/39Ar and biostratigraphic age constraints from previous studies indicate ages from 141 to 65 Ma. One site with an age of 135.1 ± 1.5 Ma (2σ) gave a reliable intensity result of 34 ± 8 µT (equivalent to a virtual axial dipole moment, VADM, value of 88 ± 20 ZAm2), three sites from 121 to 112 Ma, spanning the onset of the CNS, vary from 21 ± 1 to 34 ± 4 µT (53 ± 3 to 87 ± 10 ZAm2). These results from the CNS are all higher than the long-term average of ∼42 ZAm2 and data from Suhongtu, Mongolia (46–53 ZAm2) and are similar to the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus (81 ZAm2, reinterpreted in this study). Together with the reinterpreted data, the new Costa Rica results suggest that the strength of the geomagnetic field was approximately the same both before and after the onset of the CNS. Therefore, the data do not support a strict correlation between polarity interval length and the strength of the magnetic field.
2
Date Added: Jul 30, 2021
Date Added: Jul 30, 2021
We use the benefits of the full-resolution methodology for time-series decomposition singular spectrum analysis to assess the quantitative impact of orbital and, for the first time, millennial-scale Sun-related climate responses from EPICA records. The quantitative impact of the three Sun-related cycles (unnamed ~9.7-kyr; proposed ‘Heinrich-Bond’ ~6.0-kyr; Hallstatt ~2.5-kyr), cumulatively explain ~4.0% (δD), 2.9% (CO2), and 6.6% (CH4) in variance, demonstrating for the first time the minor role of solar activity in the regional budget of Earth's climate forcing. A cycle of ~3.6 kyr, which is little known in literature, results in a mean variance of 0.6% only, does not seem to be Sun-related, although a gravitational origin cannot be ruled out. According to the recurrence analysis of Heinrich events (6.03 ± 1.4 kyr) and their correlation with EPICA stack ~6.0-kyr cycle, it is proposed that this band of solar activity be named the ‘Heinrich-Bond cycle’. On these basis, it is deemed that the ‘Heinrich-Bond’ solar cycle may act on the ice-sheet as an external instability factor both related to excess ice leading to calving process and IRD-layers (‘cold-related’ Heinrich events), and surface heating with meltwater streams (‘warm-related’ Heinrich events). The Hallstatt cycle is found in a number of solar proxies, geomagnetic secular variations, paleoclimatic oscillations, combination tones of Milankovitch forcings and resonant planetary beats, indicating an apparent ‘multi-forcing’ origin possibly related to planetary beat hypothesis. The orbital components consistently reflects the post-Mid-Pleistocene transition nature of the EPICA records in which the short eccentricity results in most of the variance (51.6%), followed by obliquity (19.0%) and precession (8.4%). Beyond the Milankovitch theory, evidence is emerging of a multiple-forcing cosmoclimatic system with stochastic interactions between external (gravitational resonances, orbitals, solar activity) and Earth's internal (geodynamics, atmosphere composition, feedback mechanisms) climate components, each having a strong difference in terms of the relative quantitative impact on Earth's climate.
2
Date Added: Jul 31, 2021
Date Added: Jul 31, 2021
The main objective of this study is to reconstruct surface water dynamics occurring along the Western Iberian Margin (WIM) relating them to the positi…
8
Date Added: Oct 17, 2021
Date Added: Oct 17, 2021
Heinrich events were collapses of the North American ice sheet during the last ice age that affected the global climate significantly. Their cause is unknown. Some have theorized that the ice sheet grew over time from snow accumulation, while the earth warmed it from below. A victim of its own success, the ice may have thickened enough to insulate heat from the ground until it melted from below, lubricating its slow slide towards the ocean. This would have removed ice from land, starting the process over. However, this theory can not explain why Heinrich events occurred when they did. Later, it was theorized that Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, periods of ocean warming, played a central role by triggering ice sheet collapse through melt at the ice-ocean interface. Unfortunately, we lack robust evidence that conditions were just right for the ocean to trigger these collapses repeatedly. In this paper, we describe a computational model that can reconcile the differences between these two competing theories. We propose that Heinrich and DO events can synchronize, a phenomenon where small influences between interrelated systems can align their timing. We find that this explains many mysterious aspects of the Earth's recent climate history.
6
Date Added: Jul 31, 2021
There's an ever increasing amount of scientific evidence that suggests the Earth has a catastrophe cycle of ~12,000 years. The cycle is propagated by the sun and effects every planet in our solar system, albeit in different ways. The half-cycle of this event occurs every 6,000 years and has been named the 'Heinrich-Bond Cycle' in a recently published science paper.We know that the Earth's magnetosphere is weakening at an accelerated rate and that this is also a driving force of the catastrophe cycle. Coupled with that is the rapid movement of the magnetic poles travelling away from the physical North/South poles, which are set to meet each other southeast of the Indian Ocean, should they stay their current course.There's also mounting evidence of all over the world of advanced civilizations from our ancient past that just 'mysteriously' disappeared. Does this make sense knowing what we now know about Earth's catastrophe cycle? These magnetic excursions don't happen overnight, they likely take place over years, decades, or possibly even centuries depending on varying severity. Did human civilization begin in caves or is that where it tragically ended? Possibly both. The few survivors left from these excursions would likely end up in the only real safe place they could find - in caves. By the time they got to these caves, much had likely already been lost i.e. technology, supplies, books and by this time most if not all major populations had been wiped out. No satellites, cell phones, electricity, gas, running water, etc., just a handful of weary survivors and maybe a few necessary supplies. They must've had to stay there for many years as the environment was too dangerous and the weather too extreme and erratic. Picture what that would really be like and what people would really do in that situation. Camping in caves for years or decades, continuing to procreate… how would these stories get passed on through the generations? How would you explain to someone born and growing up in these caves, the world we came from and how it was destroyed? Remember, no technology, internet, computers, or much of anything else. If I were born and raised in a cave this way and never saw this advanced civilization we supposedly came from, it might be hard to believe and easy to dismiss. The name of the game would be survival and these stories would likely seem like useless rubbish. The survivors that witnessed the excursion would likely think it the most important story they tell their children, they might even carve images of what they saw in the sky (Aurora Borealis) as the catastrophe unfolded, or tell stories of a great flood, massive earthquakes, and devastating storms. The passionate emphasis on the importance of the catastrophe, only told in stories, would inevitably be viewed as mythological and/or religious in nature. It only takes one new generation beginning in a cave to put us back in the stone age, completely disjointed from where we are now. All evidence of an advanced civilization would be anecdotal & hearsay, and might even be considered fantasy. We could say we started in caves, but I believe it's more accurate to say that's where a small handful of us end up every ~12,000 years, after civilization's end.