Lithium is widely used in contemporary energy applications, but its isolation from natural reserves is plagued by time-consuming and costly processes. While polymer membranes could, in principle, circumvent these challenges by efficiently extracting lithium from aqueous solutions, they usually exhibit poor ion-specific selectivity. Toward this end, we have incorporated host–guest interactions into a tunable polynorbornene network by copolymerizing 1) 12-crown-4 ligands to impart ion selectivity, 2) poly(ethylene oxide) side chains to control water content, and 3) a crosslinker to form robust solids at room temperature. Single salt transport measurements indicate these materials exhibit unprecedented reverse permeability selectivity (∼2.3) for LiCl over NaCl—the highest documented to date for a dense, water-swollen polymer. As demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulations, this behavior originates from the ability of 12-crown-4 to bind Na+ ions more strongly than Li+ in an aqueous environment, which reduces Na+ mobility (relative to Li+) and offsets the increase in Na+ solubility due to binding with crown ethers. Under mixed salt conditions, 12-crown-4 functionalized membranes showed identical solubility selectivity relative to single salt conditions; however, the permeability and diffusivity selectivity of LiCl over NaCl decreased, presumably due to flux coupling. These results reveal insights for designing advanced membranes with solute-specific selectivity by utilizing host–guest interactions.
The latest research analysis by the Astute Analytica revolves around the state of the global Waste Management Market during the forecast period. The report involves some crucial factors, making it a qualitative choice for the readers.Buy Full Study with Pre and Post Covid-19 Impact Analysis at:https://www.astuteanalytica.com/request-sample/waste-management-marketGlobal Waste Management Market is expected to grow with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.5% during the forecast period from 2021-2027.The global Waste Management Market report follows the standardized structure representing the complete business prospect. The market analysis comprises the contribution of the global and regional industries presenting a notable share. Apart from that, the study encompasses important events, current, previous and upcoming trends, R&D activities, launches, and the names and work of prominent competitors. The structured analysis is efficient as it contains both content and diagrammatic representation depicting the accurate data. This latest report by confirms accuracy as the data is based on promising sources, such as SWOT analysis. This advanced research report covers significant factors, including production, exports, imports, sales, Astute Analytica etc. In addition, the study analyzes crucial elements, such as factors driving the growth, factors driving the decline, market segments, COVID-19 impact, innovations, trends, and past events. Regional InsightThe report comprises the regional analysis, which is directly or indirectly linked to the market growth. North America, South America, Europe, Asia are among the key regions contributing to the growth of the global Waste Management Market. Moreover, it is crucial for industry players and investors to plan the events, launch, expansion, and offerings accordingly.To summarize the content, readers can go through graphs depicting specific statistics regarding regional growth. It includes every region and its contribution segmented with data and diagrammatical representation. COVID-19 Impact AnalysisThe COVID-19 pandemic had a notable effect on the global Waste Management Market. To acknowledge the accurate industrial outlook during the pandemic, readers can read the COVID-19 analysis in the report. The report not only encompasses minor pointers representing the pandemic influence but also covers the statistics to enhance the knowledge of the readers. This report by Astute Analytica throws light increment and decrement in the overall revenue. In addition, recovery time and other responsible factors have been mentioned with detailed analysis. The report outlines the entire overview, crucial to recognize the results of the epidemic.The COVID-19 epidemic influence is important to be acknowledged for future projections. The analysts have examined the entire landscape of the market and presented a detailed version of the COVID–19 impact on the global Waste Management Market.Leading CompetitorsThe leading prominent companies mentioned in the global Waste Management Market are:Waste Management Inc., Veolia Environnement, Suez, Republic Services, Inc., Remondis Se & Co. Kg, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Daiseki Co., Ltd., Covanta Holding Corporation, Clean Harbors, Inc. and Biffa Plc. Scope of the ReportThe global Waste Management Market segmentation focuses on 1, 2, 3, 4, 5By Waste Type:Municipal WasteIndustrial WasteHazardous WasteOthersBy Waste Handling Method:Collection ServicesStorage & HandlingSortingCollection & TransportationDisposal ServicesRecyclingIncinerationLandfillCompositing & anaerobic digestionOthersBy Material:Paper & PaperboardPlasticsMetalsGlassFoodOthersAbout Astute Analytica:Astute Analytica is a global analytics and advisory company that has built a solid reputation in a short period, thanks to the tangible outcomes we have delivered to our clients. We pride ourselves in generating unparalleled, in-depth, and uncannily accurate estimates and projections for our very demanding clients spread across different verticals. We have a long list of satisfied and repeat clients from a wide spectrum including technology, healthcare, chemicals, semiconductors, FMCG, and many more. These happy customers come to us from all across the globe.They are able to make well-calibrated decisions and leverage highly lucrative opportunities while surmounting the fierce challenges all because we analyze for them the complex business environment, segment-wise existing and emerging possibilities, technology formations, growth estimates, and even the strategic choices available. In short, a complete package. All this is possible because we have a highly qualified, competent, and experienced team of professionals comprising business analysts, economists, consultants, and technology experts. In our list of priorities, you-our patron-come at the top. You can be sure of the best cost-effective, value-added package from us, should you decide to engage with us.Get in touch with us:Phone number: +18884296757Email: email@example.comVisit our website: https://www.astuteanalytica.com/Content source: https://www.astuteanalytica.com/industry-report/waste-management-market SOURCE Astute Analytica
Novel one-component multifunctional phosphors with the general formula Y1.975−x Yb0.025Er x O2S:Ti0.12Mg0.04 have been prepared via sulfiding of rare-earth, titanium, and magnesium oxides in melts of different sulfur-containing compounds of alkali metals and mineralizers under an SO2 atmosphere. The phosphors combine a long afterglow with anti-Stokes luminescence and offer unique optical emission properties: yellow luminescence under cw UV excitation with a broadband afterglow around λmax = 626 nm, predominantly narrow-band green anti-Stokes luminescence with λmax = 546 nm under 0.96-μm IR excitation, and red anti-Stokes luminescence with λmax = 670 nm under 1.55-μm IR excitation. Owing to this combination of luminescent properties, the phosphors have considerable potential for practical application.
Blended electrode materials containing high-capacity silicon (Si) and robust graphite (Gr) materials are considered advanced alternatives to pure graphite electrodes used in Li-ion batteries. Understanding the component-specific lithiation and delithiation behavior and electrochemical interactions between the blended materials is of crucial importance for targeted optimization of composition and microstructural design, yet hardly addressed to date. Herein, a model-like Si/Gr blended electrode and special electrochemical cell are introduced to directly capture the component specific behaviors for the first time. This includes studies of the formation cycles, the reaction distribution between Si and Gr, the component-specific contributions to the capacity at different charge and discharge rates, and the internal dynamics during pulse loads and subsequent relaxation. The deconvolution of the components’ behavior during operation provides fundamental insights that contribute to a profound understanding and targeted optimization of Si/Gr blended electrodes. Furthermore, the application of the presented experimental approach can serve scientists to identify and study other advanced materials combinations as blended electrodes for rechargeable batteries.
Machine learning with application to questions in the physical sciences has become a widely used tool, successfully applied to classification, regression and optimization tasks in many areas. Research focus mostly lies in improving the accuracy of the machine learning models in numerical predictions, while scientific understanding is still almost exclusively generated by human researchers analysing numerical results and drawing conclusions. In this work, we shift the focus on the insights and the knowledge obtained by the machine learning models themselves. In particular, we study how it can be extracted and used to inspire human scientists to increase their intuitions and understanding of natural systems. We apply gradient boosting in decision trees to extract human-interpretable insights from big data sets from chemistry and physics. In chemistry, we not only rediscover widely know rules of thumb but also find new interesting motifs that tell us how to control solubility and energy levels of organic molecules. At the same time, in quantum physics, we gain new understanding on experiments for quantum entanglement. The ability to go beyond numerics and to enter the realm of scientific insight and hypothesis generation opens the door to use machine learning to accelerate the discovery of conceptual understanding in some of the most challenging domains of science.
Thin films of long and short symmetric AB diblock copolymers are examined using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). We focus on hard confining walls with a preference for the A component, such that the lamellar domains orient parallel to the film with an even number 𝜈 of monolayers. For neat melts, confinement causes the lamellar period, D , to deviate from its bulk value, Db, in order to be commensurate with the film thickness, i.e., 𝐿=𝜈𝐷/2. For blends, however, the melt also has the option of macrophase separating into 𝜈(ℓ) large and 𝜈(𝑠) small monolayers so as to provide a better fit, where 𝐿=𝜈(ℓ)𝐷(ℓ)/2+𝜈(𝑠)𝐷(𝑠)/2. In addition to performing full SCFT calculations of the entire film, we develop a semi-analytical calculation for the coexistence of thick and thin monolayers that helps explain the complicated interplay between miscibility and commensurability.
Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is used to evaluate the excess free energy per unit area (i.e., tension) of different boundaries (or interfaces) between the coexisting phases of a block copolymer blend. In this first study of its kind, we focus on the boundaries separating the short- and long-period lamellar phases that form in mixtures of small and large symmetric diblock copolymers of polymerizations Ns and Nl, respectively, when Ns ≪ Nl. According to strong-segregation theory (SST), the tension is minimized when both sets of lamellae orient parallel to the boundary, but experiments [Hashimoto, , Macromolecules 1994, 27, 1562] tend to observe kink boundaries instead, where the domains of one lamellar phase evolve continuously into those of the other lamellar phase. Our more refined SCFT calculations, on the other hand, do predict a lower tension for the kink boundary consistent with the experimental observations. For completeness, we also examine the boundaries that form when the short-period lamellar phase disorders, and again the SCFT results are in agreement with experiment.
Inclusions in a brush are entropically disfavored, as they constrain the surrounding brush chains and limit possible chain conformations. As a result, polymer brushes can be used in lubrication or as biological coatings against toxic molecules. Here, we study the interaction of nanoparticles with a brush using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). For a large particle compressing a brush, we reproduce the linear scaling of the repulsive potential with the particle radius found previously using SCFT. Also, we find that this linearity gives way to a nonlinear (parabolic or cubic) dependence on the particle size for particles inserted deeply into the brush, consistent with earlier particle-based simulations. The insertion of particles disrupts the brush, changing polymer–particle interactions for subsequent nanoparticles, thus introducing effective particle–particle interactions mediated by the brush. When the grafting point is mobile in the plane of the grafting surface, our results suggest that the brush promotes clustering of inclusions. In contrast, inclusions tend to be dispersed when the grafting point is fixed. Finally, we discuss the biological implications of these findings: interactions of antimicrobial peptides with bacterial lipopolysaccharides and clustering of integrin on cancerous cell membranes.
Recent field-theoretic simulations of symmetric ternary blends of A- and B-type homopolymers with AB diblock copolymer [Vorselaars, B.; Phys. Rev. Lett., 2020, 125, 117801]predicted three-phase coexistence between bicontinuous microemulsion (BμE) and two homopolymer-rich phases. The present study begins by repeating their grand-canonical simulations over longer durations in simulation boxes of different sizes to ensure that the prediction was not an artifact of nonequilibrium effects or finite system sizes. The coexistence is then demonstrated in canonical simulations, where the three phases are explicitly separated by interfaces. From those simulations, we extract the interfacial widths, the interfacial tensions, the domain size in the BμE phase, and the copolymer concentration in each phase. The latter results are used to improve the accuracy of the previous phase diagram.