Retinoids are a group of substances comprising vitamin A and its natural and synthetic derivatives. Retinoids were first used in dermatology in 1943 by Straumfjord for acne vulgaris. Since that time, retinoids have been utilized in the management and treatment of various skin conditions, including photoaging. Photodamage of the skin occurs as a consequence of cumulative exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and is characterized by deep wrinkles, easy bruising, inelasticity, mottled pigmentation, roughness, and telangiectasias. The mechanism of UVR-induced photodamage is multifactorial. Retinoids have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of photoaged skin. Indeed, understanding the pathophysiology of photoaging and the molecular mechanism of retinoids can not only provide insight into the effects retinoids can exert in treating photoaging but also provide the rationale for their use in the treatment of other dermatologic diseases.
COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing a huge concern to the global population due to its highly contagious properties. The SARS-CoV-2 is a new variant in the coronavirus family. The world is focussing on several methods to battle against this novel corona virus, including control of its spread. In this context, ARCI has quickly made efforts to develop disinfection systems including a UVC-based disinfection trolley, honeycomb air heater and a fogging chamber using UVC germicidal lamps, dry heat sterilization and HOCl-based chemical disinfectant to provide rapid and effective inactivation of microorganisms causing the pandemic. These systems have been successfully deployed at different hospitals for their validation.o
Background Emollients are a mainstay of treatment in atopic dermatitis (AD), a disease distinguished by skin bacterial dysbiosis. However, changes in skin microbiota when emollients are used as a potential AD preventative measure in infants remain incompletely characterized. Results We compared skin barrier parameters, AD development, and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of cheek, dorsal and volar forearm samples from 6-month-old infants with a family history of atopy randomized to receive emollients (n = 11) or no emollients (controls, n = 12). The emollient group had a lower skin pH than the control group. The number of bacterial taxa in the emollient group was higher than in the control group at all sites. The Streptococcus salivarius proportion was higher in the emollient versus control groups at all sites. S. salivarius proportion appeared higher in infants without AD compared to infants with AD. A decrease in S. salivarius abundance was further identified in a separate larger population of older children demonstrating an inverse correlation between AD severity at sampling sites and S. salivarius proportions. Conclusions The decreased skin pH and the increased proportion of S. salivarius after long-term emollient use in infants at risk for developing AD may contribute to the preventative effects of emollients in high-risk infants.