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1
Authors: Leaune, Edouard, et al
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Leaune, Edouard, et al
Published: Feb 2021
Abstract Background Experts in the field of medical education emphasized the need for curricula that improve students’ attitudes toward the underserved. However, some studies have shown that medical education tends to worsen these attitudes in students. We aimed at systematically reviewing the literature assessing the change in medical students’ attitudes toward the underserved and intention to work with the underserved throughout medical education, the sociodemographic and educational factors associated with favorable medical student attitudes toward and/or intention to work with the underserved and the effectiveness of educational interventions to improve medical student attitudes toward and/or intention to work with the underserved. Method We conducted a systematic review on MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Three investigators independently conducted the electronic search. We assessed the change in medical students attitudes toward the underserved by computing a weighted mean effect size of studies reporting scores from validated scales. The research team performed a meta-analysis for the sociodemographic and educational factors associated with medical students attitudes toward and/or intention to work with the underserved. Results Fifty-five articles met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 109,647 medical students. The average response rate was 73.2%. Most of the studies were performed in the USA ( n  = 45). We observed a significant decline of medical students attitudes toward the underserved throughout medical education, in both US and non-US studies. A moderate effect size was observed between the first and fourth years (d = 0.51). Higher favorable medical students attitudes toward or intention to work with the underserved were significantly associated with female gender, being from an underserved community or ethnic minority, exposure to the underserved during medical education and intent to practice in primary care. Regarding educational interventions, the effectiveness of experiential community-based learning and curricula dedicated to social accountability showed the most positive outcome. Conclusions Medical students attitudes toward the underserved decline throughout medical education. Educational interventions dedicated to improving the attitudes or intentions of medical students show encouraging but mixed results. The generalizability of our results is impeded by the high number of studies from the global-North included in the review.
1
Authors: Xiaojun Li
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Xiaojun Li
Published: Feb 2021
Abstract How is China viewed by citizens of other countries? Popular polling data based on the feeling thermometer scale can reveal overall patterns of public sentiment toward China, but they do not necessarily capture the multidimensional preferences of the public. This article takes a deeper dive into a series of surveys conducted in Canada that covered a wide range of topics, from trade and investment to international leadership. Two broad conclusions follow. First, public perceptions of China are much more nuanced and conflicted than can be quickly gleaned from the simple dichotomy of “favorable versus unfavorable,” especially as one moves from overall impressions to more specific policy issues. Second, misperceptions of China are widespread and may be difficult to overcome, especially among those who already view China negatively. At a time when countries around the world are grappling with the rise of China and its expanding global footprint, failure to account for these features in public opinion about China may lead to misguided policies.
1
Authors: Filiz Başkan, Ünsal Doğan Başkır, Erdinç Erdem, Funda Sarıcı
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Filiz Başkan, Ünsal Doğan Başkır, Erdinç Erdem, Funda Sarıcı
Published: Feb 2021
This article deals with the relation between recent manifestations of arabesk music (nostalgic arabesk albums by popular figures and Serkan Kaya, a new singer of arabesk) and the transformation of Turkey’s sociocultural climate during the 2010s. Drawing from concepts of nostalgia and neoliberal consumerism, it examines how contemporary arabesk music turned into a retro product or a nostalgic commodity to correspond to consumers’ constant desire for ‘new’. We compare Kaya’s lyrics and melodies with classical arabesk songs to reveal ruptures and continuities between classical and contemporary arabesk. Based on our findings, we initially claim that nostalgic arabesk albums, which simply reproduce a golden arabesk past, embrace restorative nostalgia through turning classical arabesk songs into historical souvenirs rather than reflecting on what contemporary arabesk may become. By the same token, Serkan Kaya’s version of arabesk somehow questions how to interpret this musical trajectory to capture the Zeitgeist and, in this connection, accommodates reflective nostalgia. Since both new manifestations of arabesk in the 2010s are products of/for the entertainment industry, fueled by neoliberal consumer culture, and replicate classical arabesk songs in a nostalgic manner, we argue that they lose their ability to create something new in the complete sense of the term.
1
Authors: Mark McAndrews
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Mark McAndrews
Published: Feb 2021
In many English language teaching contexts, listening activities resemble listening comprehension tests. Scholars have argued that this product-oriented approach is not particularly effective in helping learners improve their listening skills and have advocated for the inclusion of instruction that targets specific features of spoken language. The current study tested these claims in the context of an English-for-academic-purposes (EAP) listening and speaking course. Sixty-four post-secondary learners of English were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In addition to their regularly scheduled listening activities, one group received 100 minutes of instruction for two prosodic features (paratone and prosodic phrasing), while the other group received an equal amount of product-oriented listening instruction. After the instructional treatment, learners in the prosody group outperformed those in the product-oriented group on comprehension of the target prosodic features, and on general listening proficiency tests. It is argued that short periods of instruction targeting prosodic features can improve the effectiveness of traditional product-oriented EAP listening instruction.
1
Authors: Michael J. Giordano
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Michael J. Giordano
Published: Feb 2021
In this quasi-experimental study, the effects of lexical coverage through pseudo word manipulation in dialogue comprehension are investigated. Forty-four first-year students in a Japanese university listened to five dialogues at different lexical coverage levels: 98%, 95%, 90%, 85%, and 83%. The results of the comprehension tests confirm the results seen in narrative, monologic lexical coverage studies that it is possible for intermediate EFL learners to attain adequate listening comprehension on texts with as little as 90% lexical coverage. However, variation in participants’ scores on higher lexical coverage dialogues suggest pseudo word distribution and topic familiarity might be acting as confounding variables in lexical coverage studies which use pseudo word manipulation. Suggestions for methodological reform for future projects on this subject are provided.
1
Authors: Alejandra Pacheco-Costa, Fernando Guzmán-Simón
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Alejandra Pacheco-Costa, Fernando Guzmán-Simón
Published: Feb 2021
Among the recent approaches to literacy incorporated into Literacy Studies, the concept of (im)materiality has enabled researchers to delve into the fluid and hybrid nature of contemporary literacy practices in early childhood. Our research explores the (im)materiality of literacy practices from the perspectives of space, screen mediation, artefacts and embodiment. The research focuses on the (im)material nature of the literacy practices carried out in different spaces, and its relevance in the making of meaning by children. The research method is based on an ethnographic approach. The results show the children’s embodiment of their literacy practices, and the way in which they create and interact with space and make meaning from their (im)material practices. These practices raise questions about their inclusion in current literacy development in schools.
1
Authors: Geoffrey Wango, Leila Mkameli Gwiyo
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Geoffrey Wango, Leila Mkameli Gwiyo
Published: Feb 2021
Death is inevitable and universal, and the corona virus disease has only further intensified a world of uncertainties as a result of frequent accidents, HIV/AIDS, cancer and natural disasters. Bereavement after any death is a potentially disruptive life event with consequences in physical and mental health, relationships and social functioning. Death is a rather odd, thought-provoking and challenging experience, particularly in the lives of children and adolescents. Death of parent/s, sibling, relative/s, teacher, classmate or friend is a relatively new and challenging phenomenon. Persons working with pupils and students, including teachers, counsellors, school chaplain and social workers, need to be prepared to offer help to those who experience bereavement. Death is unpredictable and may occur naturally, suddenly, or traumatically. In several instances, help is sometimes required in advance of bereavement in that the death may be anticipated such as instances of prolonged illness or following a fatal accident. In all cases, the role of the teacher and counsellor in the school is pivotal in supporting pupils and students who have been bereaved. This paper highlights the need to impart post-traumatic growth in bereft pupils and students in schools in order to cope with bereavement.
1
Authors: Lincango-Naranjo, Eddy, et al
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Lincango-Naranjo, Eddy, et al
Published: Feb 2021
Abstract Background As the disease caused by the novel coronavirus has spread globally, there has been significant economic instability in the healthcare systems. This reality was especially accentuated in Ecuador where, the shortage of healthcare workers combined with cultural and macroeconomic factors has led Ecuador to face the most aggressive outbreak in Latin America. In this context, the participation of final-year medical students on the front line is indispensable. Appropriate training on COVID-19 is an urgent requirement that universities and health systems must guarantee. We aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Ecuadorian final-year medical students that could potentially guide the design of better medical education curricula regarding COVID-19. Methods This was a cross-sectional 33-item online survey conducted between April 6 to April 2020 assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis toward COVID-19 in Ecuadorian final-year medical students. It was sent by email, Facebook, and WhatsApp. Results A total of 309 students responded to the survey. Out of which 88% of students scored high (≥ 70% correct) for knowledge of the disease. The majority of students were pessimistic about possible government actions, which is reflected in the negative attitude towards the control of COVID-19 and volunteering during the outbreak in Ecuador (77%, and 58% of the students, respectively). Moreover, 91% of students said they did not have adequate protective equipment. The latter finding was significantly associated with negative attitudes. Conclusions Although a large number of students displayed negative attitudes, the non-depreciable percentage of students who were willing to volunteer and the coexisting high level of knowledge displayed by students, suggests that Ecuador has a capable upcoming workforce that could benefit from an opportunity to strengthen, improve and advance their training in preparation for COVID-19. Not having personal protective equipment was significantly associated to negative attitudes. Providing the necessary tools and creating a national curriculum may be one of the most effective ways to ensure all students are trained, whilst simultaneously focusing on the students’ most pressing concerns. With this additional training, negative attitudes will improve and students will be better qualified.
1
Authors: Clarizza Jon O. Feliciano, Marison Felicidad R. Dy
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Clarizza Jon O. Feliciano, Marison Felicidad R. Dy
Published: Feb 2021
With limited studies that focus on middle childhood education and free play, this study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) related to free play of 120 early grade schoolteachers in private and public schools of Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. The data were gathered via self-administered questionnaire. The study used descriptive and statistical means to analyze data. Findings show that teachers have knowledge on free play; however, there were negative attitudes toward play, and play was not practiced. Thus, teachers and education administrators are recommended to make adjustments for teachers’ pedagogical advancement on play in middle childhood.
1
Authors: Fahad Alhomayani, Mohammad H. Mahoor
Published: Feb 2021
Authors: Fahad Alhomayani, Mohammad H. Mahoor
Published: Feb 2021
Abstract In recent years, fingerprint-based positioning has gained researchers’ attention since it is a promising alternative to the Global Navigation Satellite System and cellular network-based localization in urban areas. Despite this, the lack of publicly available datasets that researchers can use to develop, evaluate, and compare fingerprint-based positioning solutions constitutes a high entry barrier for studies. As an effort to overcome this barrier and foster new research efforts, this paper presents OutFin, a novel dataset of outdoor location fingerprints that were collected using two different smartphones. OutFin is comprised of diverse data types such as WiFi, Bluetooth, and cellular signal strengths, in addition to measurements from various sensors including the magnetometer, accelerometer, gyroscope, barometer, and ambient light sensor. The collection area spanned four dispersed sites with a total of 122 reference points. Each site is different in terms of its visibility to the Global Navigation Satellite System and reference points’ number, arrangement, and spacing. Before OutFin was made available to the public, several experiments were conducted to validate its technical quality.
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