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3
Date Added: Jan 6, 2022
Date Added: Jan 6, 2022
Professor Peter D Lee is a materials scientist at the University College London. His group focuses on X-ray imaging and computational simulation of materials at a microstructural level for materials design and advanced manufacturing.
Paper
8
Date Added: Dec 6, 2021
Date Added: Dec 6, 2021
Small-scale fisheries are responsible for landing half of the world’s fish catch, yet there are very sparse data on these fishing activities and associated fisheries production in time and space. Fisheries-dependent data underpin scientific guidance of management and conservation of fisheries systems, but it is inherently difficult to generate robust and comprehensive data for small-scale fisheries, particularly given their dispersed and diverse nature. In tackling this challenge, we use open source software components including the Shiny R package to build PeskAAS; an adaptable and scalable digital application that enables the collation, classification, analysis and visualisation of small-scale fisheries catch and effort data. We piloted and refined this system in Timor-Leste; a small island developing nation. The features that make PeskAAS fit for purpose are that it is: (i) fully open-source and free to use (ii) component-based, flexible and able to integrate vessel tracking data with catch records; (iii) able to perform spatial and temporal filtering of fishing productivity by fishing method and habitat; (iv) integrated with species-specific length-weight parameters from FishBase; (v) controlled through a click-button dashboard, that was co-designed with fisheries scientists and government managers, that enables easy to read data summaries and interpretation of context-specific fisheries data. With limited training and code adaptation, the PeskAAS workflow has been used as a framework on which to build and adapt systematic, standardised data collection for small-scale fisheries in other contexts. Automated analytics of these data can provide fishers, managers and researchers with insights into a fisher’s experience of fishing efforts, fisheries status, catch rates, economic efficiency and geographic preferences and limits that can potentially guide management and livelihood investments.
Paper
98
Date Added: Dec 26, 2021
Date Added: Dec 26, 2021
Microchannel are very important for microfluidic devices because they carry liquid or fluid quantities, aiming to realize biochemical micro reactions, IC cooling, etc. The most of microfluidic devices used until now bulk micromachining technologies to fabricate microchannels, microchambers, involving high temperature bonding processes. So, the material cost is enough expensive because one extra wafer is needed to encapsulate the microfluidic system. In this paper, two low temperatures. IC compatible technological processes for microchannels based microfluidic devices fabrication are described. Arrays of microchannels and microfluidic devices (comprising also microchambers/microalveoli) have been fabricated on silicon, or other substrates
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Date Added: Sep 3, 2021
Date Added: Sep 3, 2021
Nature controls the assembly of complex architectures through self-limiting processes; however, few artificial strategies to mimic these processes have been reported to date. Here we demonstrate a system comprising two types of nanocrystal (NC), where the self-limiting assembly of one NC component controls the aggregation of the other. Our strategy uses semiconducting InP/ZnS core–shell NCs (3 nm) as effective assembly modulators and functional nanoparticle surfactants in cucurbit[n]uril-triggered aggregation of AuNCs (5–60 nm), allowing the rapid formation (within seconds) of colloidally stable hybrid aggregates. The resultant assemblies efficiently harvest light within the semiconductor substructures, inducing out-of-equilibrium electron transfer processes, which can now be simultaneously monitored through the incorporated surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy–active plasmonic compartments. Spatial confinement of electron mediators (for example, methyl viologen (MV2+)) within the hybrids enables the direct observation of photogenerated radical species as well as molecular recognition in real time, providing experimental evidence for the formation of elusive σ–(MV+)2 dimeric species. This approach paves the way for widespread use of analogous hybrids for the long-term real-time tracking of interfacial charge transfer processes, such as the light-driven generation of radicals and catalysis with operando spectroscopies under irreversible conditions.
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Date Added: Sep 7, 2021
Date Added: Sep 7, 2021
Radiological examination of the brain is a critical determinant of stroke care pathways. Accessible neuroimaging is essential to detect the presence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) operates at high magnetic field strength (1.5–3 T), which requires an access-controlled environment, rendering MRI often inaccessible. We demonstrate the use of a low-field MRI (0.064 T) for ICH evaluation. Patients were imaged using conventional neuroimaging (non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) or 1.5/3 T MRI) and portable MRI (pMRI) at Yale New Haven Hospital from July 2018 to November 2020. Two board-certified neuroradiologists evaluated a total of 144 pMRI examinations (56 ICH, 48 acute ischemic stroke, 40 healthy controls) and one ICH imaging core lab researcher reviewed the cases of disagreement. Raters correctly detected ICH in 45 of 56 cases (80.4% sensitivity, 95%CI: [0.68–0.90]). Blood-negative cases were correctly identified in 85 of 88 cases (96.6% specificity, 95%CI: [0.90–0.99]). Manually segmented hematoma volumes and ABC/2 estimated volumes on pMRI correlate with conventional imaging volumes (ICC = 0.955, p = 1.69e-30 and ICC = 0.875, p = 1.66e-8, respectively). Hematoma volumes measured on pMRI correlate with NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) and clinical outcome (mRS) at discharge for manual and ABC/2 volumes. Low-field pMRI may be useful in bringing advanced MRI technology to resource-limited settings.
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Date Added: Jul 22, 2021
Date Added: Jul 22, 2021
Motor imagery offers an excellent opportunity as a stimulus-free paradigm for brain–machine interfaces. Conventional electroencephalography (EEG) for motor imagery requires a hair cap with multiple wired electrodes and messy gels, causing motion artifacts. Here, a wireless scalp electronic system with virtual reality for real-time, continuous classification of motor imagery brain signals is introduced. This low-profile, portable system integrates imperceptible microneedle electrodes and soft wireless circuits. Virtual reality addresses subject variance in detectable EEG response to motor imagery by providing clear, consistent visuals and instant biofeedback. The wearable soft system offers advantageous contact surface area and reduced electrode impedance density, resulting in significantly enhanced EEG signals and classification accuracy. The combination with convolutional neural network-machine learning provides a real-time, continuous motor imagery-based brain–machine interface. With four human subjects, the scalp electronic system offers a high classification accuracy (93.22 ± 1.33% for four classes), allowing wireless, real-time control of a virtual reality game.
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Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
MOOC's (Massive Open Online Courses) allow individuals to expand educational boundaries. The proliferation of MOOCs holds the potential to enhance access to quality learning materials for those who lack these resources, such as young adults in low-income communities; African Americans are overrepresented in these communities. There has been little attention to investigating how African Americans in higher education use MOOCs for personal and career development, and even less attention to how these young adults become aware of MOOCs. This empirical study identifies how African Americans from underserved communities in New Jersey became aware of MOOCs and their uses of it.
2
Date Added: Aug 13, 2021
Date Added: Aug 13, 2021
Multichannel electrophysiological sensors and stimulators—particularly those used to study the nervous system—are usually based on monolithic microelectrode arrays. However, the architecture of such arrays limits flexibility in electrode placement and scaling to a large number of nodes, especially across non-contiguous locations. Here we report wirelessly networked and powered electronic microchips that can autonomously perform neural sensing and electrical microstimulation. The microchips, which we term neurograins, have an ~1 GHz electromagnetic transcutaneous link to an external telecom hub, providing bidirectional communication and control at the individual device level. To illustrate the potential of the approach, we show that 48 neurograins can be individually addressed on a rat cortical surface and used for the acute recording of neural activity. Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements show that the link configuration could potentially be scaled to 770 neurograins using a customized time-division multiple access protocol.
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Date Added: Jul 20, 2021
Date Added: Jul 20, 2021
Importance: A head computed tomography (CT) with positive results for acute intracranial hemorrhage is the gold-standard diagnostic biomarker for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). In moderate to severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] scores 3-12), some CT features have been shown to be associated with outcomes. In mild TBI (mTBI; GCS scores 13-15), distribution and co-occurrence of pathological CT features and their prognostic importance are not well understood. Objective: To identify pathological CT features associated with adverse outcomes after mTBI. Design, Setting, and Participants: The longitudinal, observational Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) study enrolled patients with TBI, including those 17 years and older with GCS scores of 13 to 15 who presented to emergency departments at 18 US level 1 trauma centers between February 26, 2014, and August 8, 2018, and underwent head CT imaging within 24 hours of TBI. Evaluations of CT imaging used TBI Common Data Elements. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) scores were assessed at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. External validation of results was performed via the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. Data analyses were completed from February 2020 to February 2021. Exposures: Acute nonpenetrating head trauma. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequency, co-occurrence, and clustering of CT features; incomplete recovery (GOSE scores <8 vs 8); and an unfavorable outcome (GOSE scores <5 vs ≥5) at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: In 1935 patients with mTBI (mean [SD] age, 41.5 [17.6] years; 1286 men [66.5%]) in the TRACK-TBI cohort and 2594 patients with mTBI (mean [SD] age, 51.8 [20.3] years; 1658 men [63.9%]) in an external validation cohort, hierarchical cluster analysis identified 3 major clusters of CT features: contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and/or subdural hematoma; intraventricular and/or petechial hemorrhage; and epidural hematoma. Contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and/or subdural hematoma features were associated with incomplete recovery (odds ratios [ORs] for GOSE scores <8 at 1 year: TRACK-TBI, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.39-2.33]; CENTER-TBI, 2.73 [95% CI, 2.18-3.41]) and greater degrees of unfavorable outcomes (ORs for GOSE scores <5 at 1 year: TRACK-TBI, 3.23 [95% CI, 1.59-6.58]; CENTER-TBI, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.13-2.49]) out to 12 months after injury, but epidural hematoma was not. Intraventricular and/or petechial hemorrhage was associated with greater degrees of unfavorable outcomes up to 12 months after injury (eg, OR for GOSE scores <5 at 1 year in TRACK-TBI: 3.47 [95% CI, 1.66-7.26]). Some CT features were more strongly associated with outcomes than previously validated variables (eg, ORs for GOSE scores <5 at 1 year in TRACK-TBI: neuropsychiatric history, 1.43 [95% CI .98-2.10] vs contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and/or subdural hematoma, 3.23 [95% CI 1.59-6.58]). Findings were externally validated in 2594 patients with mTBI enrolled in the CENTER-TBI study. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, pathological CT features carried different prognostic implications after mTBI to 1 year postinjury. Some patterns of injury were associated with worse outcomes than others. These results support that patients with mTBI and these CT features need TBI-specific education and systematic follow-up.
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