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27
Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of dapagliflozin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, with and without heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Patients with CKD, with and without type 2 diabetes, were enrolled in the DAPA-CKD (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease) trial. Some patients had HF at baseline. METHODS: A total of 4,304 participants were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo. The primary composite endpoint was ≥50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, or kidney/cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints were a kidney composite (primary endpoint minus cardiovascular death), the composite of cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization, and all-cause death. Analysis of outcomes according to HF history was prespecified. RESULTS: HF patients (n = 468; 11%) were older and had more coronary disease, atrial fibrillation, and type 2 diabetes. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was similar in patients with and without HF. Rates of HF hospitalization/cardiovascular death and death from any cause were higher in HF patients, but the secondary kidney failure outcome occurred at the same rate in people with and without HF. Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary outcome equally in patients with HF (HR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.37-0.91]) and without HF (HR: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.51-0.75]) (P interaction = 0.59). The proportional risk-reductions were similar in patients with and without HF for the cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization composite (HR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.44-1.05] vs HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.51-0.97], respectively; P interaction = 0.90), and all-cause death (HR: 0.56 [95% CI: 0.34-0.93] vs HR: 0.73 [95% CI: 0.54-0.97], respectively; P interaction = 0.39), although absolute risk reductions were larger in HF patients. Adverse event rates were low and did not differ among patients with or without HF. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization and prolonged survival in CKD patients with or without type 2 diabetes, independently of history of HF. (A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Renal Outcomes and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease [DAPA-CKD]; NCT03036150).
9
Date Added: Dec 16, 2021
Date Added: Dec 16, 2021
Substantial sex differences have been reported in the physiological response to stress at multiple levels, including the release of the stress hormone, cortisol. Here, we explore the genomic variants in 93 females and 196 males regulating the initial transcriptional response to cortisol via glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Gene expression levels in peripheral blood were obtained before and after GR-stimulation with the selective GR agonist dexamethasone to identify differential expression following GR-activation. Sex stratified analyses revealed that while the transcripts responsive to GR-stimulation were mostly overlapping between males and females, the quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) regulation differential transcription to GR-stimulation was distinct. Sex-stratified eQTL SNPs (eSNPs) were located in different functional genomic elements and sex-stratified transcripts were enriched within postmortem brain transcriptional profiles associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) specifically in males and females in the cingulate cortex. Female eSNPs were enriched among SNPs linked to MDD in genome-wide association studies. Finally, transcriptional sensitive genetic profile scores derived from sex-stratified eSNPS regulating differential transcription to GR-stimulation were predictive of depression status and depressive symptoms in a sex-concordant manner in a child and adolescent cohort (n = 584). These results suggest the potential of eQTLs regulating differential transcription to GR-stimulation as biomarkers of sex-specific biological risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders.
10
Date Added: Aug 26, 2021
Date Added: Aug 26, 2021
Ultraviolet (UV) light affects endocrinological and behavioral aspects of sexuality via an unknown mechanism. Here we discover that ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure enhances the levels of sex-steroid hormones and sexual behavior, which are mediated by the skin. In female mice, UVB exposure increases hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels, resulting in larger ovaries; extends estrus days; and increases anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) expression. UVB exposure also enhances the sexual responsiveness and attractiveness of females and male-female interactions. Conditional knockout of p53 specifically in skin keratinocytes abolishes the effects of UVB. Thus, UVB triggers a skin-brain-gonadal axis through skin p53 activation. In humans, solar exposure enhances romantic passion in both genders and aggressiveness in men, as seen in analysis of individual questionaries, and positively correlates with testosterone level. Our findings suggest opportunities for treatment of sex-steroid-related dysfunctions.
Paper
3
Date Added: Jan 2, 2022
Date Added: Jan 2, 2022
Longevity in mammals is influenced by sex, and lifespan extension in response to anti-aging interventions is often sex-specific, although the mechanisms underlying these sexual dimorphisms are largely unknown. Treatment of mice with 17-α estradiol (17aE2) results in sex-specific lifespan extension, with an increase in median survival in males of 19% and no survival effect in females. Given the links between lifespan extension and metabolism, we performed untargeted metabolomics analysis of liver, skeletal muscle and plasma from male and female mice treated with 17aE2 for eight months. We find that 17aE2 generates distinct sex-specific changes in the metabolomic profile of liver and plasma. In males, 17aE2 treatment raised the abundance of several amino acids in the liver, and this was further associated with elevations in metabolites involved in urea cycling, suggesting altered amino acid metabolism. In females, amino acids and urea cycling metabolites were unaffected by 17aE2. 17aE2 also results in male-specific elevations in a second estrogenic steroid—estriol-3-sulfate—suggesting different metabolism of this drug in males and females. To understand the underlying endocrine causes for these sexual dimorphisms, we castrated males and ovariectomized females prior to 17aE2 treatment, and found that virtually all the male-specific metabolite responses to 17aE2 are inhibited or reduced by male castration. These results suggest novel metabolic pathways linked to male-specific lifespan extension and show that the male-specific metabolomic response to 17aE2 depends on the production of testicular hormones in adult life.
Paper
2
Date Added: Jan 1, 2022
Date Added: Jan 1, 2022
In genetically heterogeneous mice produced by the CByB6F1 x C3D2F1 cross, the “non-feminizing” estrogen, 17-α-estradiol (17aE2), extended median male lifespan by 19% (p < 0.0001, log-rank test) and 11% (p = 0.007) when fed at 14.4 ppm starting at 16 and 20 months, respectively. 90th percentile lifespans were extended 7% (p = 0.004, Wang–Allison test) and 5% (p = 0.17). Body weights were reduced about 20% after starting the 17aE2 diets. Four other interventions were tested in males and females: nicotinamide riboside, candesartan cilexetil, geranylgeranylacetone, and MIF098. Despite some data suggesting that nicotinamide riboside would be effective, neither it nor the other three increased lifespans significantly at the doses tested. The 17aE2 results confirm and extend our original reports, with very similar results when started at 16 months compared with mice started at 10 months of age in a prior study. The consistently large lifespan benefit in males, even when treatment is started late in life, may provide information on sex-specific aspects of aging.
Paper
18
Date Added: Jul 19, 2021
Date Added: Jul 19, 2021
Strong and durable anticancer immune responses are associated with the generation of activated cancer-specific T cells in the draining lymph nodes. However, cancer cells can colonize lymph nodes and drive tumour progression. Here, we show that lymphocytes fail to penetrate metastatic lesions in lymph nodes. In tissue from patients with breast, colon, and head and neck cancers, as well as in mice with spontaneously developing breast-cancer lymph-node metastases, we found that lymphocyte exclusion from nodal lesions is associated with the presence of solid stress caused by lesion growth, that solid stress induces reductions in the number of functional high endothelial venules in the nodes, and that relieving solid stress in the mice increased the presence of lymphocytes in lymph-node lesions by about 15-fold. Solid-stress-mediated impairment of lymphocyte infiltration into lymph-node metastases suggests a therapeutic route for overcoming T-cell exclusion during immunotherapy.
16
Date Added: Oct 13, 2021
Date Added: Oct 13, 2021
The objective of the current study was to investigate the associations between lifetime classic psychedelic use and cardiometabolic diseases. Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2005–2014), the present study examined the associations between lifetime classic psychedelic use and two types of cardiometabolic disease: heart disease and diabetes. Respondents who reported having tried a classic psychedelic at least once in their lifetime had lower odds of heart disease in the past year (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.77 (0.65–0.92), p = .006) and lower odds of diabetes in the past year (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.88 (0.78–0.99), p = .036). Classic psychedelic use might be beneficial for cardiometabolic health, but more research is needed to investigate potential causal pathways of classic psychedelics on cardiometabolic diseases.
Paper
104
Date Added: Oct 9, 2021
Date Added: Oct 9, 2021
Age-specific estimates of mean testosterone (T) concentrations appear to vary by year of observation and by birth cohort, and estimates of longitudinal declines in T typically outstrip cross-sectional decreases. These observations motivate a hypothesis of a population-level decrease in T over calendar time, independent of chronological aging. We observe a substantial age-independent decline in T that does not appear to be attributable to observed changes in explanatory factors, including health and lifestyle characteristics such as smoking and obesity. The estimated population-level declines are greater in magnitude than the cross-sectional declines in T typically associated with age.
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3
Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
Date Added: Jan 5, 2022
Melatonin is a physiological indoleamine involved in circadian rhythm regulation and it is currently used for secondary sleep disorders supported by e…
37
Date Added: Nov 1, 2020
Date Added: Nov 1, 2020
Artificial sweeteners are thought to be beneficial for diabetics or obese where refined sugar can be a problem. These low-calorie sweeteners are seemi…
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