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3
Date Added: Jan 16, 2022
Date Added: Jan 16, 2022
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key technology to mitigate the environmental impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. An understanding of the potential trapping and storage mechanisms is required to provide confidence in safe and secure CO2 geological sequestration1,2. Depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs have substantial CO2 storage potential1,3, and numerous hydrocarbon reservoirs have undergone CO2 injection as a means of enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), providing an opportunity to evaluate the (bio)geochemical behaviour of injected carbon. Here we present noble gas, stable isotope, clumped isotope and gene-sequencing analyses from a CO2-EOR project in the Olla Field (Louisiana, USA). We show that microbial methanogenesis converted as much as 13–19% of the injected CO2 to methane (CH4) and up to an additional 74% of CO2 was dissolved in the groundwater. We calculate an in situ microbial methanogenesis rate from within a natural system of 73–109 millimoles of CH4 per cubic metre (standard temperature and pressure) per year for the Olla Field. Similar geochemical trends in both injected and natural CO2 fields suggest that microbial methanogenesis may be an important subsurface sink of CO2 globally. For CO2 sequestration sites within the environmental window for microbial methanogenesis, conversion to CH4 should be considered in site selection.
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Date Added: Jan 8, 2022
Can metal or plastic used for recycling be used directly in additive manufacturing after recycling? It can be used after recycling in a different facility, but what are your ideas for a simpler use? Can you share if you know of such studies?I believe that this kind of work will be very useful at this time when raw material resources are being depleted very quickly. We will face more serious global probelms, especially, rare elements (Ni,Co,Cu,Cr, etc) run out. For this reason, we can realize many successful projects by combining additive manufacturing, which is one of the most up-to-date production technologies, with an environmentally friendly solution such as recycling. I would like to share with you a review article I found on this subject.
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Date Added: Dec 28, 2021
Date Added: Dec 28, 2021
The Frumkin or Fowler–Guggenheim isotherm, which has three fitting parameters, is often converted to a linear form with two fitting parameters to facilitate parameter estimation by linear regression. This conversion is made possible by way of replacing the unknown capacity parameter of the Frumkin isotherm with a surrogate value. The capacity parameters of certain simple isotherms (e.g., Dubinin–Radushkevich) are often used as surrogates. However, such surrogates have never been evaluated for validity or accuracy. In this paper, the three-parameter Frumkin isotherm was fit to previously published isotherm data to identify all three unknown parameters, including the capacity parameter. In the cases examined, the fitted capacity values were found to differ rather significantly from the surrogate capacity values used in the two-parameter Frumkin isotherm. The dubious practice of transforming the three-parameter Frumkin isotherm into the two-parameter Frumkin isotherm for linear estimation of parameters should be discarded in favor of estimating all three parameters by nonlinear regression.
Paper
7
Date Added: Oct 22, 2021
Date Added: Oct 22, 2021
Lithium is widely used in contemporary energy applications, but its isolation from natural reserves is plagued by time-consuming and costly processes. While polymer membranes could, in principle, circumvent these challenges by efficiently extracting lithium from aqueous solutions, they usually exhibit poor ion-specific selectivity. Toward this end, we have incorporated host–guest interactions into a tunable polynorbornene network by copolymerizing 1) 12-crown-4 ligands to impart ion selectivity, 2) poly(ethylene oxide) side chains to control water content, and 3) a crosslinker to form robust solids at room temperature. Single salt transport measurements indicate these materials exhibit unprecedented reverse permeability selectivity (∼2.3) for LiCl over NaCl—the highest documented to date for a dense, water-swollen polymer. As demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulations, this behavior originates from the ability of 12-crown-4 to bind Na+ ions more strongly than Li+ in an aqueous environment, which reduces Na+ mobility (relative to Li+) and offsets the increase in Na+ solubility due to binding with crown ethers. Under mixed salt conditions, 12-crown-4 functionalized membranes showed identical solubility selectivity relative to single salt conditions; however, the permeability and diffusivity selectivity of LiCl over NaCl decreased, presumably due to flux coupling. These results reveal insights for designing advanced membranes with solute-specific selectivity by utilizing host–guest interactions.
Paper
8
Date Added: Dec 6, 2021
Date Added: Dec 6, 2021
Small-scale fisheries are responsible for landing half of the world’s fish catch, yet there are very sparse data on these fishing activities and associated fisheries production in time and space. Fisheries-dependent data underpin scientific guidance of management and conservation of fisheries systems, but it is inherently difficult to generate robust and comprehensive data for small-scale fisheries, particularly given their dispersed and diverse nature. In tackling this challenge, we use open source software components including the Shiny R package to build PeskAAS; an adaptable and scalable digital application that enables the collation, classification, analysis and visualisation of small-scale fisheries catch and effort data. We piloted and refined this system in Timor-Leste; a small island developing nation. The features that make PeskAAS fit for purpose are that it is: (i) fully open-source and free to use (ii) component-based, flexible and able to integrate vessel tracking data with catch records; (iii) able to perform spatial and temporal filtering of fishing productivity by fishing method and habitat; (iv) integrated with species-specific length-weight parameters from FishBase; (v) controlled through a click-button dashboard, that was co-designed with fisheries scientists and government managers, that enables easy to read data summaries and interpretation of context-specific fisheries data. With limited training and code adaptation, the PeskAAS workflow has been used as a framework on which to build and adapt systematic, standardised data collection for small-scale fisheries in other contexts. Automated analytics of these data can provide fishers, managers and researchers with insights into a fisher’s experience of fishing efforts, fisheries status, catch rates, economic efficiency and geographic preferences and limits that can potentially guide management and livelihood investments.
Paper
2
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Identifying and quantifying the effects of climate change that alter the habitat overlap of marine predators and their prey population distributions is of great importance for the sustainable management of populations. This study uses Bayesian joint models with integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) to predict future spatial density distributions in the form of common spatial trends of predator–prey overlap in 2050 under the “business-as-usual, worst-case” climate change scenario. This was done for combinations of six mobile marine predator species (gray seal, harbor seal, harbor porpoise, common guillemot, black-legged kittiwake, and northern gannet) and two of their common prey species (herring and sandeels). A range of five explanatory variables that cover both physical and biological aspects of critical marine habitat were used as follows: bottom temperature, stratification, depth-averaged speed, net primary production, and maximum subsurface chlorophyll. Four different methods were explored to quantify relative ecological cost/benefits of climate change to the common spatial trends of predator–prey density distributions. All but one future joint model showed significant decreases in overall spatial percentage change. The most dramatic loss in predator–prey population overlap was shown by harbor seals with large declines in the common spatial trend for both prey species. On the positive side, both gannets and guillemots are projected to have localized regions with increased overlap with sandeels. Most joint predator–prey models showed large changes in centroid location, however the direction of change in centroids was not simply northwards, but mostly ranged from northwest to northeast. This approach can be very useful in informing the design of spatial management policies under climate change by using the potential differences in ecological costs to weigh up the trade-offs in decisions involving issues of large-scale spatial use of our oceans, such as marine protected areas, commercial fishing, and large-scale marine renewable developments.
Paper
62
Date Added: Jan 6, 2022
Date Added: Jan 6, 2022
Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) involves recording the sounds of animals and environments for research and conservation. PAM is used in a range of contexts across terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments. However, financial constraints limit applications within aquatic environments; these costs include the high cost of submersible acoustic recorders. We quantify this financial constraint using a systematic literature review of all ecoacoustic studies published in 2020, demonstrating that commercially available autonomous underwater recording units are, on average, five times more expensive than their terrestrial equivalents. This pattern is more extreme at the low end of the price range; the cheapest available aquatic autonomous units are over 40 times more expensive than their terrestrial counterparts. Following this, we test a prototype low-cost, low-specification aquatic recorder called the ‘HydroMoth’: this device is a modified version of a widely used terrestrial recorder (AudioMoth), altered to include a waterproof case and customisable gain settings suitable for a range of aquatic applications. We test the performance of the HydroMoth in both aquaria and field conditions, recording artificial and natural sounds, and comparing outputs with identical recordings taken with commercially available hydrophones. Although the signal-to-noise ratio and the recording quality of HydroMoths are lower than commercially available hydrophones, the recordings with HydroMoths still allow for the identification of different fish and marine mammal species, as well as the calculation of ecoacoustic indices for ecosystem monitoring. Finally, we outline the potential applications of low-cost, low-specification underwater sound recorders for bioacoustic studies, discuss their likely limitations, and present important considerations of which users should be aware. Several performance limitations and a lack of professional technical support mean that low-cost devices cannot meet the requirements of all PAM applications. Despite these limitations, however, HydroMoth facilitates underwater recording at a fraction of the price of existing hydrophones, creating exciting potential for diverse involvement in aquatic bioacoustics worldwide.
2
Date Added: Jul 11, 2021
Date Added: Jul 11, 2021
A Bayesian hierarchical framework with a Gaussian copula and a generalized extreme value (GEV) marginal distribution is proposed for the description of spatial dependencies in data. This spatial copula model was applied to extreme summer temperatures over the Extremadura Region, in the southwest of Spain, during the period 1980–2015, and compared with the spatial noncopula model. The Bayesian hierarchical model was implemented with a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method that allows the distribution of the model’s parameters to be estimated. The results show the GEV distribution’s shape parameter to take constant negative values, the location parameter to be altitude dependent, and the scale parameter values to be concentrated around the same value throughout the region. Further, the spatial copula model chosen presents lower deviance information criterion (DIC) values when spatial distributions are assumed for the GEV distribution’s location and scale parameters than when the scale parameter is taken to be constant over the region.
2
Date Added: Jan 9, 2022
Date Added: Jan 9, 2022
Breakthrough curves of water contaminants are usually analyzed using simple fixed bed models such as the Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson equations, which are by design symmetric. Because breakthrough data often follow an asymmetric pattern, the use of models that do not account for asymmetry could lead to poor fits, consequently resulting in erroneous estimates of breakthrough and exhaustion times. To address this issue, the Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models were modified by a logarithmic transformation to enhance their data fitting ability. The three modified models were found capable of providing robust fits to seven separate sets of previously reported asymmetric breakthrough data of water contaminants (fluoride, methylene blue, salicylic acid, lead, mercury, nickel, and arsenic), with reported residual root mean square error (RRMSE) values ranging from 0.019 to 0.046. In consequence, the new models were found capable of providing reliable estimates of breakthrough and exhaustion times corresponding to any predetermined concentration level. By contrast, the three original models were found to perform poorly, reporting inferior RRMSE values ranging from 0.038 to 0.086 for data fits and providing grossly inaccurate estimates of breakthrough and exhaustion times. The new models contain only parameters that appear in the original models, and are highly flexible, being able to assume virtually all monotonically increasing sigmoid shapes. They represent a far more accurate alternative to the original models.
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Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Hey, I wanted to share some interactive and useful 3D maps that show different satellites and debris orbiting the Earth. Was fascinated when I first found one, and am now dropping here for all of us to play around with them. Here is the Astria Graph of objects around Earth, from The University of Texas at Austin.This is the Satellite Map by esri.Stuff In Space is another brilliant 3D map that's not associated with any organization as far as I've read.
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