A Bayesian hierarchical framework with a Gaussian copula and a generalized extreme value (GEV) marginal distribution is proposed for the description of spatial dependencies in data. This spatial copula model was applied to extreme summer temperatures over the Extremadura Region, in the southwest of Spain, during the period 1980–2015, and compared with the spatial noncopula model. The Bayesian hierarchical model was implemented with a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method that allows the distribution of the model’s parameters to be estimated. The results show the GEV distribution’s shape parameter to take constant negative values, the location parameter to be altitude dependent, and the scale parameter values to be concentrated around the same value throughout the region. Further, the spatial copula model chosen presents lower deviance information criterion (DIC) values when spatial distributions are assumed for the GEV distribution’s location and scale parameters than when the scale parameter is taken to be constant over the region.
Temperature is a variable component of the environment, and all organisms must deal with or adapt to temperature change. Acute temperature change activates cellular stress responses, resulting in refolding or removal of damaged proteins. However, how organisms adapt to long-term temperature change remains largely unexplored. Here we report that budding yeast responds to long-term high temperature challenge by switching from chaperone induction to reduction of temperature-sensitive proteins and re-localizing a portion of its proteome. Surprisingly, we also find that many proteins adopt an alternative conformation. Using Fet3p as an example, we find that the temperature-dependent conformational difference is accompanied by distinct thermostability, subcellular localization, and, importantly, cellular functions. We postulate that, in addition to the known mechanisms of adaptation, conformational plasticity allows some polypeptides to acquire new biophysical properties and functions when environmental change endures.
To consider the catastrophic situation of our environment, this environment sends lot of alarming events for us, not limited to the following: global warming, climate change, and pollution. Green purchasing behavior is one of the behaviors recommended to help sustain the environment. Three factors (social influence, environmental attitude, and environmental concern) are tested to see how they affect green purchasing behavior. A significant result was indicated between Social influence, Environmental concern and green purchasing behavior. The results provided empirical support to previous studies. Future research and limitation were discussed as well.
Nanocomposites of dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) materials that are both optically transparent and electrically conductive are of great interest for an array of modern optoelectronic applications, including electrochromic and energy storage devices. Here we report for the first time the creation of ITO-free DMD nanocomposite structures that are composed of only three layers: (Ag-doped WO3)/(Ag)/(WO3). We employed high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) as a new technology to deposit the internal WO3 layer and the external Ag/WO3 nanocomposite. High rates of silver ionization in the HiPIMS process and energetic arrival of silver ions on the negatively biased DMD structure enabled their penetration into the external tungsten oxide layer, forming a nanocomposite structure in a single-step process. We provided evidence that this unique structure pushes the performance of transparent-conductive DMD materials beyond their intrinsic limits. To optimize the surface plasmon resonance effect and thus the electrochromic performance of the structures, we changed the size of silver nanoclusters through vacuum post-annealing in the same sputtering chamber at varied temperatures. The optimized Ag-WO3/Ag/WO3 structure was transparent (average transmittance = 75.89 ± 0.05% in the wavelength range of 300–700 nm) and electrically conductive (sheet resistance = 23.6 ± 0.8 Ω/□). Moreover, it showed favorable electrochromic characteristics with high coloration efficiency (32.1 cm2 C−1), fast switching speed, and excellent long-term stability for at least 2000 cycles. The mechanisms of improvement in the electrochromic performance of such bifunctional structures underpinned by surface plasmon resonance, as modulated by the size and average distance of silver nanoclusters, are elucidated. The versatile new approach using HiPIMS for the fabrication of transparent-conductive nanocomposite coatings on ITO-free substrates holds great potential to manufacture next-generation optoelectronic materials such as electrochromic devices.
Global wind resources greatly exceed current electricity demand and the levelized cost of energy from wind turbines has shown precipitous declines. Accordingly, the installed capacity of wind turbines grew at an annualized rate of about 14% during the last two decades and wind turbines now provide ~6–7% of the global electricity supply. This renewable electricity generation source is thus already playing a role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. Here we document trends within the industry, examine projections of future installed capacity increases and compute the associated climate change mitigation potential at the global and regional levels. Key countries (the USA, UK and China) and regions (e.g., EU27) have developed ambitious plans to expand wind energy penetration as core aspects of their net-zero emissions strategies. The projected climate change mitigation from wind energy by 2100 ranges from 0.3–0.8 °C depending on the precise socio-economic pathway and wind energy expansion scenario followed. The rapid expansion of annual increments to wind energy installed capacity by approximately two times current rates can greatly delay the passing of the 2 °C warming threshold relative to pre-industrial levels. To achieve the required expansion of this cost-effective, low-carbon energy source, there is a need for electrification of the energy system and for expansion of manufacturing and installation capacity.
The transportation sector is a major factor contributing to climate change. Transportation Network Companies (TNC) may become part of solutions to reduce emissions and their drivers play an important role in doing so. This study aims to understand TNC driver’s perceptions of climate change, to understand how climate change and extreme weather affects their business and how they see their role in contributing to or mitigating climate change. We conducted an in-person survey of TNC drivers in Nevada, USA, and analyzed the derived information with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Among the 75 TNC drivers, almost half believe climate change is happening and is caused by human activities. We found TNC drivers and their business are affected by extreme weather events. Currently the drivers do not see their role in mitigating climate change and lack the awareness of green initiatives already in place by TNCs’. We conclude that TNCs could increase their climate change responsibility by providing driver incentives for cars with reduced emissions or by geographically expanding customer incentives for using sustainable TNC options such as car-pooling. By doing so, TNC may play a role in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and traffic congestion; thus, contributing to improved sustainable transportation practices.
At present, conflicts between urban development and the climate environment are becoming increasingly apparent under rapid urbanization in China. Revealing the dynamic mechanism and controlling factors of the urban outdoor thermal environment is the necessary theoretical preparation for regulating and improving the urban climate environment. Taking Hangzhou as an example and based on the local climate zones classification system, we investigated the effects of land cover composition and structure on temperature variability at the local scale. The measurement campaign was conducted within four local climate zones (LCZ 2, 4, 5, and LCZ 9) during 7 days in the summer of 2018. The results showed that the temperature difference within the respective LCZ was always below 1.1 °C and the mean temperature difference between LCZs caused by different surface physical properties was as high as 1.6 °C at night. Among four LCZs, LCZ 2 was always the hottest, and LCZ 9 was the coolest at night. In particular, the percentage of pervious surface was the most important land cover feature in explaining the air temperature difference. For both daytime and nighttime, increasing the percentage of pervious surface as well as decreasing the percentage of impervious surface and the percentage of building surface could lower the local temperature, with the strongest influence radius range from 120 m to 150 m. Besides, the temperature increased with the SVF increased at day and opposite at night.
Changes in the translational speed of tropical cyclones (e.g., sluggish tropical cyclones) are associated with extreme precipitation and flash flooding. However, it is still unclear regarding the spatial and temporal variability of extreme tropical cyclone translation events in the North Atlantic and underlying large-scale drivers. This work finds that the frequencies of extreme fast- and slow-translation events of Atlantic tropical cyclones exhibited a significant rising trend during 1980–2019. The extreme fast-translation events of Atlantic tropical cyclones are primarily located in the northern part of the North Atlantic, while the extreme slow-translation events are located more equatorward. There is a significant rising trend in the frequency of extreme slow-translation events over ocean with no trend over land. However, there is a significant rising trend in the frequency of extreme fast-translation events over ocean and over land. The extreme slow-translation events are associated with a strong high-pressure system in the continental United States (U.S.). By contrast, the extreme fast-translation events are related to a low-pressure system across most of the continental U.S. that leads to westerly steering flow that enhances tropical cyclone movement. This study suggests that it might be useful to separate tropical cyclone events into fast-moving and slow-moving groups when examining the translational speed of North Atlantic tropical cyclones, instead of examining regional or global mean translational speed.
Nuclear fission produces 400 GWe which represents 11% of the global electricity output. Uranium is the essential element as both fission fuel and radioactive waste. Therefore, the recovery of uranium is of great importance. Here, an in situ electrolytic deposition method to extract uranium from aqueous solution is reported. A functionalized reduced graphene oxide foam (3D-FrGOF) is used as the working electrode, which acts as both a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst and a uranium deposition substrate. The specific electrolytic deposition capacity for U(VI) ions with the 3D-FrGOF is 4560 mg g−1 without reaching saturation, and the Coulombic efficiency can reach 54%. Moreover, reduction of the uranium concentration in spiked seawater from 3 ppm to 19.9 ppb is achieved, which is lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency uranium limits for drinking water (30 ppb). Furthermore, the collection electrode can be efficiently regenerated and recycled at least nine times without much efficiency fading, by ejecting into 2000 ppm concentrated uranium solution in a second bath with reverse voltage bias. All these findings open new opportunities in using free-standing 3D-FrGOF electrode as an advanced separation technique for water treatment.
The Greenhouse effect is a leading factor in keeping the Earth warm because it keeps some of the planet's heat that would otherwise escape from the atmosphere out to space. The study report on the Greenhouse gases and their impact on Global warming. Without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average global temperature would be much colder and life on Earth as we know it would be impossible. Greenhouse gases include water vapor, CO2, methane, nitrous oxide (N2O) and other gases. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases turn like a blanket, gripping Infra-Red radiation and preventing it from escaping into outer space. The clear effect of the greenhouse gases is the stable heating of Earth's atmosphere and surface, thus, global warming. The ability of certain gases, greenhouse gases, to be transparent to inbound visible light from the sun, yet opaque to the energy radiated from the earth is one of the best still events in the atmospheric sciences. The existence of greenhouse effect is what makes the earth a comfortable place for life. The study also reveals the importance of greenhouse gases to the warming of the planet earth.