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Trending Papers in geology

Thermal regime and dynamics of the West Antarctic ice sheet
Hermann Engelhardt
Published: Jan 2004
  • Temperature-depth profiles measured in 22 wells drilled in the West Antarctic ice sheet show two distinctly different thermal states of its basal ice.
Анатолий Касян
Self Esteem in Early Adolescence and the importance of Perceived Sports Competence
  • Hence, there is evidence that perceived sports competence affects hierarchically superior selfconcept dimensions, such as global physical self-concept and global self-esteem, especially when considered to be of great importance.
  • The central findings of this study revealed that individual differences in early adolescents’ importance of sports competence explain variations in the relationship between perceived sports competence and global self-esteem, yet normative gender-specific differences do not
Methods for measuring ice temperature with ice-penetrating radar
From Paper: A framework for attenuation method selection evaluated with ice-penetrating radar data at South Pole Lake
Published: May 2020
  • Framework tested for one dataset from an ice-penetrating radar survey at South Pole Lake.
  • Developed a framework for empirical methods used to measure attenuation in ice-penetrating radar.
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Ice temperature near the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet
From Paper: Processes influencing heat transfer in the near-surface ice of Greenland’s ablation zone
Published: Oct 2018
  • A discrepancy between the measured ice temperatures and the mean air temperature implies some added heat from refreezing water in the upper 20 meters of ice in the ablation zone.
  • Near-surface ice temperatures measured through time in Western Greenland.
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Temperatures measured from a cubic kilometer block of Greenland ice
From Paper: Measured Horizontal Temperature Gradients Constrain Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Greenland Ice
Published: Sep 2017
  • Strong horizontal temperature gradients indicate heat transfer by vertical advection and by latent heat transfer deep into the ice column.
  • Ice temperatures were measured in a 1km^3 block of ice in Western Greenland.
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Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk Econometrica 47
D. Kahneman, A. Tversky
Published: Mar 1979
A lubricator valve apparatus adapted for use when running wireline tools into an offshore well during a production test of the well. The valve includes a valve body having a central flow passage and a ball valve element for opening and closing the passage, hydraulically operable means responsive to surface-controlled pressure for opening and closing the ball valve, latch means for releasably holding the ball valve in both the open and the closed positions, and bypass valve means for equalizing pressures across the ball valve prior to opening thereof and arranged in the event hydraulic control of the ball valve is lost to be opened in response to pressure applied at the surface to the production pipe to provide a flow path for well control fluids.
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Understanding public perception of hydraulic fracturing: a case study in Spain.
Daniele Costa, Vijay Pereira, Joaquim Góis, Anthony S. Danko, António Fiúza
Published: Dec 2017
Public acceptance is crucial for the implementation of energy technologies. Hydraulic fracturing is a technology widely used in the USA for natural gas production from shale formations, but currently finds strong public opposition worldwide, especially in Europe. Shale gas exploitation and exploration have the potential to significantly reduce import dependency in several countries, including Spain. To better understand public opinion on this issue, this article reports a survey targeting both the entire Spanish population and the inhabitants of the province of Burgos, the location where shale gas exploration permits have already been issued. Results demonstrate that half of the Spanish population opposes shale gas, and this opposition increases in autonomous communities that are closer to possible exploration sites. The results also show that socio-demographic aspects are not strong predictors of opposition. In addition, Burgos' population show different behaviours toward shale gas that demonstrates that proximity and prospect of shale gas development affects opinion. Finally, there is still a great level of unfamiliarity with high volume hydraulic fracturing and shale gas in both populations sampled.
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Applications in geomorphology
A. Keller, E., et al
Published: Oct 2020
Abstract Geomorphology is a pure science with the goal of understanding Earth surface processes and landscape evolution, and it is also an applied science with the goal of addressing the needs of society. With many new high-resolution methods of depicting topography and much improved numerical dating, geomorphologists are working on problems involving rates of surface processes, landscape evolution, and applications to areas of concern to society that were impossible to address a few decades ago. Some of the areas of enquiry where geomorphology has been applied include: natural hazards (landslides, floods, earthquakes, and tsunamis), ecosystem management, site anthropology, land-use planning, engineering geology, expert witness testimony, and hazard reduction, assessment, and perception. How people perceive and respond to potential hazards, how their vulnerability can increase their risk, and how preparedness and response can be improved depends as much on the social sciences as on physical science.
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Processes influencing heat transfer in the near-surface ice of Greenland's ablation zone
H. Hills, Benjamin, et al
Published: Oct 2018
Abstract. To assess the influence of various heat transfer processes on the thermal structure of near-surface ice in Greenland's ablation zone, we compare in situ measurements with thermal modeling experiments. A total of seven temperature strings were installed at three different field sites, each with between 17 and 32 sensors and extending up to 21 m below the ice surface. In one string, temperatures were measured every 30 min, and the record is continuous for more than 3 years. We use these measured ice temperatures to constrain our modeling experiments, focusing on four isolated processes and assessing the relative importance of each for the near-surface ice temperature: (1) the moving boundary of an ablating surface, (2) thermal insulation by snow, (3) radiative energy input, and (4) subsurface ice temperature gradients below the seasonally active near-surface layer. In addition to these four processes, transient heating events were observed in two of the temperature strings. Despite no observations of meltwater pathways to the subsurface, these heating events are likely the refreezing of liquid water below 5–10 m of cold ice. Together with subsurface refreezing, the five heat transfer mechanisms presented here account for measured differences of up to 3  ∘ C between the mean annual air temperature and the ice temperature at the depth where annual temperature variability is dissipated. Thus, in Greenland's ablation zone, the mean annual air temperature is not a reliable predictor of the near-surface ice temperature, as is commonly assumed.
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Soil–plant system and potential human health risk of Chinese cabbage and oregano growing in soils from Mn- and Fe-abandoned mines: microcosm assay
S. Rossini-Oliva, M. M. Abreu, E. S. Santos, E. Leidi
Published: Jan 2020
In Portugal, many abandoned mines are often close to agricultural areas and might be used for plant food cultivation. Soils in the vicinity of two Mn- and Fe-abandoned mines (Ferragudo and Rosalgar, SW of Portugal) were collected to cultivate two different food species ( Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt and Origanum vulgare L.). Chemical characterization of the soil–plant system and potential risk of adverse effects for human health posed by plants associated with soil contamination, based on the estimation of hazard quotient (HQ), were assessed in a microcosm assay under greenhouse conditions. In both soils, the average total concentrations of Fe and Mn were above the normal values for soils in the region and their concentration in shoots of both species was very high. Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis grew better in Ferragudo than in Rosalgar soils, and it behaved as an excluder of Cu, Mn, Fe, S and Zn in both soils. The HQ for Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in the studied species grown on both soils was lower than unit indicating that its consumption is safe. The high Mn tolerance found in both species might be due in part to the high contents of Fe in the soil available fraction that might contribute to an antagonism effect in the uptake and translocation of Mn. The obtained results emphasize the need of further studies with different food crops before cultivation in the studied soils to assess health risks associated with high metal intake.
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