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3
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Although virtual reality (VR) shares common features with video games, it offers different experiences for users based on the mediums unique affordances. Still, there is no cohesive classification system for commercial VR applications. To account for this deficiency, the paper presents an exploratory comparative analysis of titles from the Steam digital store across three platform types: VR only, VR supported, and non-VR. We analyzed data from a subset of the most popular applications within each (N=141, 93, and 1217, respectively). These three classification types were academic game genres, developer defined categories, and user-denoted tags. Results identify the most common content classifications (e.g., Action and Shooter within VR only applications), the relative availability of each classification between platforms (e.g., Casual is more common in VR only than VR supported or non-VR), general platform popularity (e.g., VR only received less positive ratings than VR supported and non-VR), and which content classifications are associated with higher user ratings across platforms (e.g., Action and Music/Rhythm are most positively rated in VR only). These findings provide a novel snapshot of the state of VR applications and lay the foundation for future theoretical constructions of classification systems based on content, market, interactivity, sociality, and service dependencies.
Paper
3
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
This study examined the relationship between stereotype threat, game modality (augmented reality, virtual reality), and stereotypic beliefs about STEM fields. Results of a 2 [modality] x 2 [stereotype threat] factorial, between-subjects experiment with women participants (N = 64) suggest that gender stereotypes primed before playing the STEM game in AR induced stereotype threat, but induced stereotype reactance in VR. Specifically, for participants who played in AR, the stereotype-reinforcing prompt (compared to a counter-stereotype prompt) was associated with worse STEM-game performance, which mediated an increase in stereotypical beliefs about women in STEM. Conversely, for participants who played in VR, the stereotype-reinforcing prompt was associated with better STEM-game performance and more positive (i.e., counter-stereotypic) beliefs about women in STEM, though without mediation. These findings support the claim that stereotypes triggered in a STEM-gaming context have the potential to reinforce stereotypes in STEM fields. Researchers and practitioners should consider the implication that VR is potentially more male-stereotyped than AR, while AR makes stereotyped identity characteristics more accessible than VR.
Paper
3
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
The present research addresses the stereotype that women and girls lack the ability to succeed compared to men and boys in video games. Previous lab-based research has found that playing spatial-action video games potentially reduces the gender gap in spatial-thinking skills, while previous field studies of less spatially oriented online games have found that the perceived gender-performance gap actually results from the amount of previous gameplay time, which is confounded with gender. Extending both lines of research, the present field study examines player performance in a spatial-action game, the vehicle-based shooter World of Tanks. Results from 3,280 players suggest that women appear to accrue fewer experience points per match than men, signaling lower performance ability, but that when the amount of previous gameplay time is statistically controlled, this gender difference is negated. These results lend support to the claim that playing video games—even spatial-action games—diminishes the gender-performance gap, which is potentially useful for promoting gender equity in STEM fields.
Paper
3
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
The computers are social actors framework (CASA), derived from the media equation, explains how people communicate with media and machines demonstrating social potential. Many studies have challenged CASA, yet it has not been revised. We argue that CASA needs to be expanded because people have changed, technologies have changed, and the way people interact with technologies has changed. We discuss the implications of these changes and propose an extension of CASA. Whereas CASA suggests humans mindlessly apply human-human social scripts to interactions with media agents, we argue that humans may develop and apply human-media social scripts to these interactions. Our extension explains previous dissonant findings and expands scholarship regarding human-machine communication, human-computer interaction, human-robot interaction, human-agent interaction, artificial intelligence, and computer-mediated communication.
Paper
2
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Over a decade of research on the Proteus effect in numerous contexts suggests that people conform in behavior and attitudes to their avatars’ characteristics. In order to provide clarity about the reliability and size of the Proteus effect, a meta-analysis was conducted with 46 quantitative experimental studies in which avatars with specific characteristics were randomly assigned to participants. Results indicate a relatively consistent effect size (between .22 and .26, depending on subset of studies examined) and nearly all variance explained. Unexplained variance differed between studies that used behavioral or attitudinal measures, while studies which examined potential moderators explained all variance. Overall, this research suggests that the Proteus effect is a reliable phenomenon, with a small-but-approaching-medium effect size according to a traditional rule of thumb, but is relatively large compared to other digital media effects examined in previous meta analyses.
Paper
6
Date Added: Dec 27, 2021
Link to article: https://iep.utm.edu/ethic-ai/“This article provides a comprehensive overview of the main ethical issues related to the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on human society. AI is the use of machines to do things that would normally require human intelligence. In many areas of human life, AI has rapidly and significantly affected human society and the ways we interact with each other. It will continue to do so. Along the way, AI has presented substantial ethical and socio-political challenges that call for a thorough philosophical and ethical analysis. Its social impact should be studied so as to avoid any negative repercussions. AI systems are becoming more and more autonomous, apparently rational, and intelligent. This comprehensive development gives rise to numerous issues. In addition to the potential harm and impact of AI technologies on our privacy, other concerns include their moral and legal status (including moral and legal rights), their possible moral agency and patienthood, and issues related to their possible personhood and even dignity. It is common, however, to distinguish the following issues as of utmost significance with respect to AI and its relation to human society, according to three different time periods: (1) short-term (early 21st century): autonomous systems (transportation, weapons), machine bias in law, privacy and surveillance, the black box problem and AI decision-making; (2) mid-term (from the 2040s to the end of the century): AI governance, confirming the moral and legal status of intelligent machines (artificial moral agents), human-machine interaction, mass automation; (3) long-term (starting with the 2100s): technological singularity, mass unemployment, space colonisation.”
2
Date Added: Dec 31, 2021
Date Added: Dec 31, 2021
Over the past two decades, computer assistance has revolutionalized surgery and has enabled enormous advancements in knee prosthesis surgery. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a hot topic of orthopaedic research. Reflecting population dynamics, its use continues to increase, especially in high demand populations. Therefore, efforts to achieve the best fit and precise alignment in TKA continue. Computer assistance is valuable for knee prosthesis surgeons in this regard. This manuscript investigated the use of computer assistance in knee prosthesis surgery. The effects of computer use on important facets of knee prosthesis surgery, such as precision, clinical aspects, and costs, were examined. Moreover, an overall review of the recent literature on the navigation and personalized cutting guides was conducted.
Paper
93
Date Added: Jun 3, 2021
Date Added: Jun 3, 2021
To make deliberate progress towards more intelligent and more human-like artificial systems, we need to be following an appropriate feedback signal: we need to be able to define and evaluate intelligence in a way that enables comparisons between two systems, as well as comparisons with humans. Over the past hundred years, there has been an abundance of attempts to define and measure intelligence, across both the fields of psychology and AI. We summarize and critically assess these definitions and evaluation approaches, while making apparent the two historical conceptions of intelligence that have implicitly guided them. We note that in practice, the contemporary AI community still gravitates towards benchmarking intelligence by comparing the skill exhibited by AIs and humans at specific tasks such as board games and video games. We argue that solely measuring skill at any given task falls short of measuring intelligence, because skill is heavily modulated by prior knowledge and experience: unlimited priors or unlimited training data allow experimenters to "buy" arbitrary levels of skills for a system, in a way that masks the system's own generalization power. We then articulate a new formal definition of intelligence based on Algorithmic Information Theory, describing intelligence as skill-acquisition efficiency and highlighting the concepts of scope, generalization difficulty, priors, and experience. Using this definition, we propose a set of guidelines for what a general AI benchmark should look like. Finally, we present a benchmark closely following these guidelines, the Abstraction and Reasoning Corpus (ARC), built upon an explicit set of priors designed to be as close as possible to innate human priors. We argue that ARC can be used to measure a human-like form of general fluid intelligence and that it enables fair general intelligence comparisons between AI systems and humans.
Paper
2
Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
MOOC's (Massive Open Online Courses) allow individuals to expand educational boundaries. The proliferation of MOOCs holds the potential to enhance access to quality learning materials for those who lack these resources, such as young adults in low-income communities; African Americans are overrepresented in these communities. There has been little attention to investigating how African Americans in higher education use MOOCs for personal and career development, and even less attention to how these young adults become aware of MOOCs. This empirical study identifies how African Americans from underserved communities in New Jersey became aware of MOOCs and their uses of it.
2
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
Date Added: Jan 3, 2022
This study examines the gender and country differences with respect to a range of gaming motivations (e.g., social, performance, habit) and game genre choices (e.g., action, sports, casual). Surveys were conducted on 634 university students from Singapore, Germany and the US. Overall, the findings suggest that many game motivations and genre choices differ by player gender, country, and the interaction between gender and country in some cases. Further, game motivations and genre choices were related to each other, though sometimes in a negative direction. Finally, differences in gaming motivations, genre choices, and gender, but not the country of residence, were all found to relate to differences in future intention to play. Although these topics have been studied in isolation in previous research, the present study contributes unique insights about the intersections of gender, cultural background, gaming motivations, and genre choices.
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