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Trending Papers in immunology

A Basic Review of the Preliminary Evidence That COVID-19 Risk and Severity Is Increased in Vitamin D Deficiency
Published: Sep 2020
  • The authors show that vitamin D deficiency can explain every major risk factor, including the mystery of why children seem relatively protected and why males, the elderly, and people with naturally melanin-rich skin are especially vulnerable
  • “COVID-19” is the MeSH term for SARS-CoV-2 disease, coronavirus 2019, COVID-19, and derivative terms - which were used for the literature search associated with this review
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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A synthetic DNA gene therapy injected into a specific tissue can mitigate symptoms of autoimmune diseases
From Paper: Synthetic DNA Delivery of an Engineered Arginase Enzyme Can Modulate Specific Immunity In Vivo
Published: Jun 2020
  • Pretreatment of animals with the synthetic DNA-encoded arginase led to significant decreases in skin acanthosis, proinflammatory cytokines, and costimulatory molecules in extracted macrophages and dendritic cells
  • Significant in vivo immunosuppression was observed in the presence of DNA-encoded arginase
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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The level of IgG antibodies specifically targeted towards the S protein 'receptor binding domain' is correlated with the likelihood of creating neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2
From Paper: Characterization of neutralizing versus binding antibodies and memory B cells in COVID-19 recovered individuals from India
Published: Sep 2020
  • The authors believe their results suggest that assessing RBD-specific IgG titers can serve as a surrogate assay to determine the neutralizing antibody response
  • Interestingly - IgG titers measured against SARS-CoV-2 whole virus preparation, which includes responses to additional viral proteins besides RBD, did not show a robust correlation with neutralizing antibodies
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Sex differences in immune responses that underlie COVID-19 disease outcomes
Takahashi, Takehiro, et al
Published: Aug 2020
  • The results revealed that male patients had higher plasma levels of innate immune cytokines such as IL-8 and IL-18 along with more robust induction of non-classical monocytes, while female patients mounted significantly more robust T cell activation than male patients during SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • examined sex differences in viral loads, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titers, plasma cytokines, as well as blood cell phenotyping in COVID-19 patients
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Researchers uncover a compound that links mitochondrial health to immune system regulation
From Paper: Alpha-ketoglutarate inhibits Regulatory T cell differentiation by coupling lipidome remodelling to mitochondrial metabolism
  • This study identifies a novel connection between aKG-mediated lipidome remodelling and mitochondrial reprogramming in attenuating polarization of naïve CD4 T lymphocytes to a Treg fate
  • The results found that αKG directly affected the metabolism of Treg-polarized cells because its injection into the flux analyzer immediately increased oxygen consumption and the OCR/ECAR ratio
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Horses exhibit a strong neutralizing antibody response when exposed to isolated SARS-CoV-2 S protein
From Paper: Equine hyperimmune globulin raised against the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein has extremely high neutralizing titers
Cunha, Luis Eduardo R., et al
Published: Aug 2020
  • The results show the perspective of using hyperimmune anti-SARS-CoV-2 F(ab')2 preparations as a passive immunization therapy in humans, similar to therapies that have been safely used for decades against rabies, tetanus and snake venoms
  • This study demonstrated that hyperimmune globulin preparations raised in horses against the recombinant trimeric spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 in the prefusion conformation provide very high ELISA titers as well as highly potent neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Prior Betacoronavirus exposure induces long lasting T cell immunity
From Paper: SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls
Published: Jul 2020
  • -Given the similarity and robustness of SARS related T cell response, it's believed that patients who recover from COVID-19 will develop long lasting immunity.
  • - Patients with no prior exposure to SARS or COVID-19 show T cells for SARS-COV-2
Submitted by Daniel Horowitz
A review of Vitamin D's role in inflammation and cancer
From Paper: Vitamin D Signaling in Inflammation and Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications
  • Vitamin D is known to downregulate pro-inflammatory pathways such as NF-kB
  • Vitamin D is associated with the development and differentiation of metabolic, epidermal, endocrine, neurological and immunological systems of the body
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Study shows 40-60% of unexposed individuals had T-cell recognition of SARS-CoV-2, hypothesizes that crossover immunity came from "common cold" coronaviruses
From Paper: Presence of SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells in COVID-19 patients and healthy donors
Published: May 2020
  • T cell reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes is also detected in non-exposed individuals
  • T cell responses are focused not only on spike but also on M, N, and other ORFs
Submitted by Angela Meng
An inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is able to safely produce antibodies within 97%+ of recipients after 28 days
From Paper: Immunogenicity and Safety of a SARS-CoV-2 Inactivated Vaccine in Healthy Adults Aged 18-59 years: Report of the Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Phase 2 Clinical Trial
  • The results support the conduction of phase 3 trial for CoronaVac with optimum schedule/dosage per different scenarios.
  • CoronaVac was well tolerated, and no dose-related safety concerns were observed.
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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