A better understanding of the metabolic alterations in immune cells during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may elucidate the wide diversity of clinical symptoms experienced by individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report the metabolic changes associated with the peripheral immune response of 198 individuals with COVID-19 through an integrated analysis of plasma metabolite and protein levels as well as single-cell multiomics analyses from serial blood draws collected during the first week after clinical diagnosis. We document the emergence of rare but metabolically dominant T cell subpopulations and find that increasing disease severity correlates with a bifurcation of monocytes into two metabolically distinct subsets. This integrated analysis reveals a robust interplay between plasma metabolites and cell-type-specific metabolic reprogramming networks that is associated with disease severity and could predict survival.
Highlights •Microbiota, immune, and neurophysiological profile of 60 extremely premature infants •Pro-inflammatory T cell response correlates with suppressed electrocortical maturation •γδ T cells have central implications for the pathogenesis of brain injury •Klebsiella overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract is predictive for brain damage Summary Premature infants are at substantial risk for suffering from perinatal white matter injury. Though the gut microbiota has been implicated in early-life development, a detailed understanding of the gut-microbiota-immune-brain axis in premature neonates is lacking. Here, we profiled the gut microbiota, immunological, and neurophysiological development of 60 extremely premature infants, which received standard hospital care including antibiotics and probiotics. We found that maturation of electrocortical activity is suppressed in infants with severe brain damage. This is accompanied by elevated γδ T cell levels and increased T cell secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and reduced secretion of neuroprotectants. Notably, Klebsiella overgrowth in the gut is highly predictive for brain damage and is associated with a pro-inflammatory immunological tone. These results suggest that aberrant development of the gut-microbiota-immune-brain axis may drive or exacerbate brain injury in extremely premature neonates and represents a promising target for novel intervention strategies.
Exhausted CD8 T cells (TEX) are a distinct state of T cell differentiation associated with failure to clear chronic viruses and cancer. Immunotherapies such as PD-1 blockade can reinvigorate TEX cells, but reinvigoration is not durable. A major unanswered question is whether TEX cells differentiate into functional durable memory T cells (TMEM) upon antigen clearance. Here, using a mouse model, we found that upon eliminating chronic antigenic stimulation, TEX cells partially (re)acquire phenotypic and transcriptional features of TMEM cells. These ‘recovering’ TEX cells originated from the T cell factor (TCF-1+) TEX progenitor subset. Nevertheless, the recall capacity of these recovering TEX cells remained compromised as compared to TMEM cells. Chromatin-accessibility profiling revealed a failure to recover core memory epigenetic circuits and maintenance of a largely exhausted open chromatin landscape. Thus, despite some phenotypic and transcriptional recovery upon antigen clearance, exhaustion leaves durable epigenetic scars constraining future immune responses. These results support epigenetic remodeling interventions for TEX cell–targeted immunotherapies.
TCR-like antibodies tackle celiac disease Ingestion of gluten-containing food triggers the gastrointestinal symptoms of celiac disease in patients with CD4+ T cells specific for deamidated gluten peptides presented by disease-associated HLA-DQ class II MHC molecules. Frick et al. used phage display technology to screen for TCR-like antibodies specific for an immunodominant gluten peptide bound by HLA-DQ2.5. Antibody engineering optimized affinity and binding stability, yielding an improved TCR-like antibody that structurally mimicked the TCR interface with gluten peptide–MHC complexes. These TCR-like antibodies blocked activation and proliferation of gluten-responsive human CD4+ T cells both in vitro and in DQ2.5 transgenic mice. TCR-like antibodies that block immunodominant epitope recognition have potential as personalized medicine treatments for blunting gluten-activated T cell responses without compromising effector functions provided by other T cells. Antibodies specific for peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules are valuable tools for studies of antigen presentation and may have therapeutic potential. Here, we generated human T cell receptor (TCR)–like antibodies toward the immunodominant signature gluten epitope DQ2.5-glia-α2 in celiac disease (CeD). Phage display selection combined with secondary targeted engineering was used to obtain highly specific antibodies with picomolar affinity. The crystal structure of a Fab fragment of the lead antibody 3.C11 in complex with HLA-DQ2.5:DQ2.5-glia-α2 revealed a binding geometry and interaction mode highly similar to prototypic TCRs specific for the same complex. Assessment of CeD biopsy material confirmed disease specificity and reinforced the notion that abundant plasma cells present antigen in the inflamed CeD gut. Furthermore, 3.C11 specifically inhibited activation and proliferation of gluten-specific CD4+ T cells in vitro and in HLA-DQ2.5 humanized mice, suggesting a potential for targeted intervention without compromising systemic immunity. A human TCR-like antibody blocks gluten-dependent activation of celiac disease T cells in vitro and in HLA-DQ2.5 humanized mice. A human TCR-like antibody blocks gluten-dependent activation of celiac disease T cells in vitro and in HLA-DQ2.5 humanized mice.
For decades, it was commonly accepted that the brain is secluded from peripheral immune activity and is self-sufficient for its maintenance and repair. This simplistic perception was based on the presence of resident immune cells, the microglia, and barrier systems within the brain, and the assumption that the central nervous system (CNS) lacks lymphatic drainage. This view was revised with the discoveries that higher functions of the CNS, homeostasis and repair are supported by peripheral innate and adaptive immune cells. The findings of bone marrow-derived immune cells in specialized niches, and the renewed observation that a lymphatic drainage system exists within the brain, further contributed to this revised model. In this Review, we describe the immune niches within the brain, the contribution of professional immune cells to brain functions, the bidirectional relationships between the CNS and the immune system and the relevance of immune components to brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases.
Depression in late-life is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and development of all-cause dementia. The neurobiology of late-life depression (LLD) may involve both neurochemical and neurodegenerative mechanisms that are common to depression and dementia. Transgenic amyloid mouse models show evidence of early degeneration of monoamine systems. Informed by these preclinical data, the hypotheses were tested that a spatial covariance pattern of higher beta-amyloid (Aβ) and lower serotonin transporter availability (5-HTT) in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical regions would distinguish LLD patients from healthy controls and the expression of this pattern would be associated with greater depressive symptoms. Twenty un-medicated LLD patients who met DSM-V criteria for major depression and 20 healthy controls underwent PET imaging with radiotracers for Aβ ([11C]-PiB) and 5-HTT ([11C]-DASB). A voxel-based multi-modal partial least squares (mmPLS) algorithm was applied to the parametric PET images to determine the spatial covariance pattern between the two radiotracers. A spatial covariance pattern was identified, including higher Aβ in temporal, parietal and occipital cortices associated with lower 5-HTT in putamen, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and raphe nuclei (dorsal, medial and pontine), which distinguished LLD patients from controls. Greater expression of this pattern, reflected in summary 5-HTT/Aβ mmPLS subject scores, was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The mmPLS method is a powerful approach to evaluate the synaptic changes associated with AD pathology. This spatial covariance pattern should be evaluated further to determine whether it represents a biological marker of antidepressant treatment response and/or cognitive decline in LLD patients.
In this self published report I compare comprehensive COVID19 antibody signatures after each of the vaccines and natural infection. The results are then used to examine our future with the now endemic virus.All data is open source. The Tableau Public dashboards can be freely downloaded, complete with the embedded data.The samples used to generate the data came from the Cure-Hub antibody survey, which is currently enrolling. You can sign up for an antibody test and participate in the one of a kind citizen science project at Cure-Hub.com.Report Link: SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines, Breakthrough Infections and Lasting Natural Immunity (cure-hub.com)
This self published report compares antibody neutralization of the SARS-CoV-2 WT and Delta variants. In total there are samples from 49 individuals who have received either of the approved vaccines or recovered from natural infection.Data is open source an the Tableau Public dashboards can be freely downloaded.At Cure-Hub we are now exlusively testing antibody neutralization against Delta. This is because Delta is the only variant circulating in the USA. If you would like an antibody test and to participate in this one of a kind citizen science project, then sign up at Cure-Hub.com.Report Link: Antibody Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Wild Type and Delta Variants (cure-hub.com)
In February and March 2020, two mass swab testing campaigns were conducted in Vo’, Italy. In May 2020, we tested 86% of the Vo’ population with three immuno-assays detecting antibodies against the spike and nucleocapsid antigens, a neutralisation assay and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Subjects testing positive to PCR in February/March or a serological assay in May were tested again in November. Here we report on the results of the analysis of the May and November surveys. We estimate a seroprevalence of 3.5% (95% Credible Interval (CrI): 2.8–4.3%) in May. In November, 98.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 93.7–100.0%) of sera which tested positive in May still reacted against at least one antigen; 18.6% (95% CI: 11.0–28.5%) showed an increase of antibody or neutralisation reactivity from May. Analysis of the serostatus of the members of 1,118 households indicates a 26.0% (95% CrI: 17.2–36.9%) Susceptible-Infectious Transmission Probability. Contact tracing had limited impact on epidemic suppression.