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Trending Papers in immunology

Copy number signatures predict chromothripsis and associate with poor clinical outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma
Maclachlan, Kylee, et al
Published: Nov 2020
  • In the CoMMpass dataset it is shown that CN signatures independently associate with shorter progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Finally, to accelerate the clinical translation of testing for chromothripsis where WGS data is not available, the analysis is extended to whole exome sequencing (WES), where it confirm the ability of CN signatures to predict the presence of chromothripsis and show it is associated with adverse clinical outcomes.
High-Grade Serous Ovarian Tumor Cells Modulate NK Cell Function to Create an Immune-Tolerant Microenvironment
Gonzalez, Veronica D, et al
Published: Nov 2020
  • Ovarian tumor, high-grade serous cancer (HGSC), epithelial tumor, epithelial- mesenchymal, immune infiltrate, T cells, NK cells, decidual-like, trogocytosis, cytotoxicity, NK immunotherapy
Titus Osikhiana Ogahbrai
Genetically engineered B cells can create antibodies against HIV
From Paper: Vaccine Elicitation of HIV Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies from Engineered B cells
Published: Mar 2020
  • Engineered B cells can generate durable memory and serum antibody in the immunocompetent B6 mouse model
  • Mice that received the engineered B-cells showed on average 10-fold higher total antigen-specific titers one week after the first boost
Aneuploidy, whole chromosome or chromosome arm imbalance, is a near-universal characteristic of human cancers
From Paper: Genomic and Functional Approaches to Understanding Cancer Aneuploidy
Published: Apr 2018
  • Engineered chromosome 3p deletion does not promote proliferation in human lung cells
  • Patterns of aneuploidy alterations are tumor-type specific
De novo design of potent and resilient hACE2 decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2
Linsky, Thomas W., et al
Published: Nov 2020
We developed a de novo protein design strategy to swiftly engineer decoys for neutralizing pathogens that exploit extracellular host proteins to infect the cell. Our pipeline allowed the design, validation, and optimization of de novo hACE2 decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. The best decoy, CTC-445.2, binds with low nanomolar affinity and high specificity to the RBD of the spike protein. Cryo-EM shows that the design is accurate and can simultaneously bind to all three RBDs of a single spike protein. Because the decoy replicates the spike protein target interface in hACE2, it is intrinsically resilient to viral mutational escape. A bivalent decoy, CTC-445.2d, shows ~10-fold improvement in binding. CTC-445.2d potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells in vitro and a single intranasal prophylactic dose of decoy protected Syrian hamsters from a subsequent lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge.
Goodboy Freedom
Human innate lymphoid cell precursors express CD48 that modulates ILC differentiation through 2B4 signaling
Tufa, Dejene M., et al
Published: Nov 2020
Human common ILC progenitors acquire CD48 and CD52, defining innate lymphoid cell precursors and NK progenitors.Human common ILC progenitors acquire CD48 and CD52, defining innate lymphoid cell precursors and NK progenitors.
Goodboy Freedom
Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system - Gut microorganisms can affect brain functions
From Paper: Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system
Published: May 2017
  • Bacterial proteins could cause inflammation, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity and consequently induce or affect the progression of Parkinson’s Disease, PD An imbalance in gut microbiota may promote the development of Alzheimer’s Disease by affecting intestinal function and the synthesis and secretion of substances.
  • Gut microorganisms can also directly affect the immune system.They play an important role in the development of the autoimmune system and are associated with a variety of autoimmune and metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is speculated that gut symbiotic microorganisms play an important role in the susceptibility to Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Exploring how an infant's immune system changes over the first week of life
From Paper: Preparing for Life: Plasma Proteome Changes and Immune System Development During the First Week of Human Life
Published: Oct 2020
Neonates have heightened susceptibility to infections. The biological mechanisms are incompletely understood but thought to be related to age-specific adaptations in immunity due to resource constraints during immune system development and growth. We present here an extended analysis of our proteomics study of peripheral blood-plasma from a study of healthy full-term newborns delivered vaginally, collected at the day of birth and on day of life (DOL) 1, 3 or 7, to cover the first week of life. The plasma proteome was characterized by LC-MS using our established 96-well plate format plasma proteomics platform. We found increasing acute phase proteins and a reduction of respective inhibitors on DOL1. Focusing on the complement system, we found increased plasma concentrations of all major components of the classical complement pathway and the membrane attack complex (MAC) from birth onward, except C7 which seem to have near adult levels at birth. In contrast, components in the lectin and alternative complement pathways mainly decreased. A comparison to whole blood mRNA levels enabled characterization of mRNA and protein levels in parallel, and for 23 of the 30 monitored complement proteins, the whole blood transcript information by itself was not reflective of the plasma protein levels or dynamics during the first week of life. Analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) mRNA and protein levels revealed that IgM levels and synthesis increased, while the plasma concentrations of maternally transferred IgG1-4 decreased in accordance with their in vivo half-lives. The neonatal plasma ratio of IgG1 to IgG2-4 was increased compared to adult values, demonstrating a highly efficient IgG1 transplacental transfer process. Partial compensation for maternal IgG degradation was achieved by endogenous synthesis of the IgG1 subtype which increased with DOL. The findings were validated in a geographically distinct cohort, demonstrating a consistent developmental trajectory of the newborn’s immune system over the first week of human life across continents. Our findings indicate that the classical complement pathway is central for newborn immunity and our approach to characterize the plasma proteome in parallel with the transcriptome will provide crucial insight in immune ontogeny and inform new approaches to prevent and treat diseases.
Antibacterial activity of plant extracts/phytochemicals on antibiotic resistant bacteria
Published: Apr 2005
  • The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum joabolanum (jambolan) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme). The phytochemicals benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and farnesol were also utilized. The highest antimicrobial potentials were observed for the extracts of Caryophyllus aromaticus and Syzygyum joabolanum, which inhibited 64.2 and 57.1% of the tested microorganisms, respectively, with higher activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria (83.3%). Sage and yarrow extracts did not present any antimicrobial activity. Association of antibiotics and plant extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results obtained with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was particularly interesting, since it was inhibited by clove, jambolan, pomegranate and thyme extracts. This inhibition was observed with the individual extracts and when they were used in lower concentrations with ineffective antibiotics.
  • The synergistic effect from the association of antibiotic with plant extracts against resistant bacteria leads to new choices for the treatment of infectious diseases. This effect enables the use of the respective antibiotic when it is no longer effective by itself during therapeutic treatment.
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