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104
Date Added: Jan 18, 2022
Date Added: Jan 18, 2022
Using online surveys, we collected data regarding COVID-19-related loss of smell or taste from 69,841 individuals. We performed a multi-ancestry genome-wide association study and identified a genome-wide significant locus in the vicinity of the UGT2A1 and UGT2A2 genes. Both genes are expressed in the olfactory epithelium and play a role in metabolizing odorants. These findings provide a genetic link to the biological mechanisms underlying COVID-19-related loss of smell or taste.
197
Date Added: Jan 7, 2022
Date Added: Jan 7, 2022
BACKGROUND Little evidence has been available to support the use of thiazide diuretics to treat hypertension in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. METHODS We randomly assigned patients with stage 4 chronic kidney disease and poorly controlled hypertension, as confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring, in a 1:1 ratio to receive chlorthalidone at an initial dose of 12.5 mg per day, with increases every 4 weeks if needed to a maximum dose of 50 mg per day, or placebo; randomization was stratified according to previous use of loop diuretics. The primary outcome was the change in 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure from baseline to 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the change from baseline to 12 weeks in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide level, plasma renin and aldosterone levels, and total body volume. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS A total of 160 patients underwent randomization, of whom 121 (76%) had diabetes mellitus and 96 (60%) were receiving loop diuretics. At baseline, the mean (±SD) estimated glomerular filtration rate was 23.2±4.2 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and the mean number of antihypertensive medications prescribed was 3.4±1.4. At randomization, the mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure was 142.6±8.1 mm Hg in the chlorthalidone group and 140.1±8.1 mm Hg in the placebo group and the mean 24-hour ambulatory diastolic blood pressure was 74.6±10.1 mm Hg and 72.8±9.3 mm Hg, respectively. The adjusted change in 24-hour systolic blood pressure from baseline to 12 weeks was −11.0 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], −13.9 to −8.1) in the chlorthalidone group and −0.5 mm Hg (95% CI, −3.5 to 2.5) in the placebo group. The between-group difference was −10.5 mm Hg (95% CI, −14.6 to −6.4) (P<0.001). The percent change in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio from baseline to 12 weeks was lower in the chlorthalidone group than in the placebo group by 50 percentage points (95% CI, 37 to 60). Hypokalemia, reversible increases in serum creatinine level, hyperglycemia, dizziness, and hyperuricemia occurred more frequently in the chlorthalidone group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and poorly controlled hypertension, chlorthalidone therapy improved blood-pressure control at 12 weeks as compared with placebo. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Indiana Institute of Medical Research)
6
Date Added: Dec 12, 2021
Hydnellum peckii is a fungus with anticoagulant properties. Since early reports of COVID patients presented with high venous thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation, Hydnellum peckii is viable treatment solution of COVID -19
49
Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
Inflammation plays a prominent role in the development of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, and anti-inflammatory agents may improve cardiovascular outcomes. For years, colchicine has been used as a safe and well-tolerated agent in diseases such as gout and familial Mediterranean fever. The widely available therapeutic has several anti-inflammatory effects, however, that have proven effective in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases as well. It is considered standard-of-care therapy for pericarditis, and several clinical trials have evaluated its role in postoperative and postablation atrial fibrillation, postpericardiotomy syndrome, coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary interventions, and cerebrovascular disease. We aim to summarize colchicine’s pharmacodynamics and the mechanism behind its anti-inflammatory effect, outline thus far accumulated evidence on treatment with colchicine in cardiovascular disease, and present ongoing randomized clinical trials. We also emphasize real-world clinical implications that should be considered on the basis of the merits and limitations of completed trials. Altogether, colchicine’s simplicity, low cost, and effectiveness may provide an important addition to other standard cardiovascular therapies. Ongoing studies will address complementary questions pertaining to the use of low-dose colchicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
7
Date Added: Dec 23, 2021
Date Added: Dec 23, 2021
Background and objective Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and may influence the autonomic nervous system. This study aims to analyze the autonomic control, through heart rate variability (HRV), from community-dwelling elders with (DM+) and without diabetes mellitus (DM−). Materials and methods This cross-sectional study, in which 205 elders (≥ 60 years old), from the urban area of Aiquara municipality gave their written consent to participate. HRV data was collected through a Polar RS800CX monitor with a 5-min initial record at rest, followed by the command to quickly stand up. Results The mean age was 71 years (SD, 7.32). The population was mostly made up of women 121 (59%), with low or no schooling 123 (60%), and low income 166 (81%). HRV analysis in a frequency domain showed no difference when comparing the two groups of DM+ and DM−. Henceforth in a time domain, the rMSSD showed a median value of 16.09 (interquartile range, 9.91–30.68); pNN50 median of 0.79 (interquartile range, 0.00–6.62), with a statistical significance between the group of DM+ and DM−. Conclusions There is a difference between the studied groups principally in what concerns the time domain, which reflects the parasympathetic activity, suggesting that elders with diabetes mellitus may have a worse parasympathetic control.
Paper
30
Date Added: Jan 10, 2022
Date Added: Jan 10, 2022
In this report, we use a detailed simulation model to assess and project the COVID-19 epidemic in Florida. The model is a data-driven, stochastic, discrete-time, agent based model with an explicit representation of people and places. Using the model, we find that the omicron variant wave in Florida is likely to cause many more infections than occurred during the delta variant wave. Due to testing limitations and often mild symptoms, however, we anticipate that omicron infections will be underreported compared to delta. We project that reported cases of COVID-19 will continue to grow significantly and peak in early January 2022, and that the number of reported COVID-19 deaths due to omicron may be 1/3 of the total caused by the delta wave.
27
Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
Date Added: Dec 30, 2021
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of dapagliflozin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, with and without heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Patients with CKD, with and without type 2 diabetes, were enrolled in the DAPA-CKD (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease) trial. Some patients had HF at baseline. METHODS: A total of 4,304 participants were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo. The primary composite endpoint was ≥50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, or kidney/cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints were a kidney composite (primary endpoint minus cardiovascular death), the composite of cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization, and all-cause death. Analysis of outcomes according to HF history was prespecified. RESULTS: HF patients (n = 468; 11%) were older and had more coronary disease, atrial fibrillation, and type 2 diabetes. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was similar in patients with and without HF. Rates of HF hospitalization/cardiovascular death and death from any cause were higher in HF patients, but the secondary kidney failure outcome occurred at the same rate in people with and without HF. Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary outcome equally in patients with HF (HR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.37-0.91]) and without HF (HR: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.51-0.75]) (P interaction = 0.59). The proportional risk-reductions were similar in patients with and without HF for the cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization composite (HR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.44-1.05] vs HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.51-0.97], respectively; P interaction = 0.90), and all-cause death (HR: 0.56 [95% CI: 0.34-0.93] vs HR: 0.73 [95% CI: 0.54-0.97], respectively; P interaction = 0.39), although absolute risk reductions were larger in HF patients. Adverse event rates were low and did not differ among patients with or without HF. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization and prolonged survival in CKD patients with or without type 2 diabetes, independently of history of HF. (A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Renal Outcomes and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease [DAPA-CKD]; NCT03036150).
16
Date Added: Dec 23, 2021
Date Added: Dec 23, 2021
BACKGROUND The pathophysiology of COVID-19 includes immune-mediated hyperinflammation, which could potentially lead to respiratory failure and death. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is among cytokines that contribute to the inflammatory processes. Lenzilumab, a GM-CSF neutralising monoclonal antibody, was investigated in the LIVE-AIR trial to assess its efficacy and safety in treating COVID-19 beyond available treatments. METHODS In LIVE-AIR, a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, hospitalised adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia not requiring invasive mechanical ventilation were recruited from 29 sites in the USA and Brazil and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive three intravenous doses of lenzilumab (600 mg per dose) or placebo delivered 8 h apart. All patients received standard supportive care, including the use of remdesivir and corticosteroids. Patients were stratified at randomisation by age and disease severity. The primary endpoint was survival without invasive mechanical ventilation to day 28 in the modified intention-to-treat population (mITT), comprising all randomised participants who received at least one dose of study drug under the documented supervision of the principal investigator or sub-investigator. Adverse events were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04351152, and is completed. FINDINGS Patients were enrolled from May 5, 2020, until Jan 27, 2021. 528 patients were screened, of whom 520 were randomly assigned and included in the intention-to-treat population. 479 of these patients (n=236, lenzilumab; n=243, placebo) were included in the mITT analysis for the primary outcome. Baseline demographics were similar between groups. 311 (65%) participants were males, mean age was 61 (SD 14) years at baseline, and median C-reactive protein concentration was 79 (IQR 41–137) mg/L. Steroids were administered to 449 (94%) patients and remdesivir to 347 (72%) patients; 331 (69%) patients received both treatments. Survival without invasive mechanical ventilation to day 28 was achieved in 198 (84%; 95% CI 79–89) participants in the lenzilumab group and in 190 (78%; 72–83) patients in the placebo group, and the likelihood of survival was greater with lenzilumab than placebo (hazard ratio 1·54; 95% CI 1·02–2·32; p=0·040). 68 (27%) of 255 patients in the lenzilumab group and 84 (33%) of 257 patients in the placebo group experienced at least one adverse event that was at least grade 3 in severity based on CTCAE criteria. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events of grade 3 or higher were related to respiratory disorders (26%) and cardiac disorders (6%) and none led to death. INTERPRETATION Lenzilumab significantly improved survival without invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, with a safety profile similar to that of placebo. The added value of lenzilumab beyond other immunomodulators used to treat COVID-19 alongside steroids remains unknown.
66
Date Added: Oct 19, 2021
Date Added: Oct 19, 2021
Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is the use of ultrasonography by clinicians to augment the physical examination and guide clinical decision-making at the bedside.1,2 It has become the standard of care for most common bedside procedures. However, while endorsed by the American College of...
6
Date Added: Dec 11, 2021
Date Added: Dec 11, 2021
Propolis is a bee wax rich in various phytocomponents and traditionally used to treat various ailments. Propolis is reported to possess an array of biological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic as well as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, Reno protective, and derma protective activities. A plethora of studies confirmed that propolis is effective against various types of cancer including head and neck, lung, liver, brain (glioma), pancreas, kidney, prostate, skin (melanoma), breast, oral, esophagus, gastric, colorectal, and bladder cancers. However, many researchers have demonstrated that propolis displays potent chemoprotective/chemo preventive or anti-cancer activity against only a few types of cancers like oral, gastrointestinal, dermal (melanoma), breast, and prostate cancers. Therefore, this mini-review only summarizes the chemo preventive/chemotherapeutic activities of propolis and its updated underlying mechanisms. Taken together, propolis displays potent chemoprotective or anti-cancer effect due to the presence of various phytocomponents which contribute to pro-apoptotic, cytotoxic, anti-proliferative (cell cycle arrest), anti-metastatic, anti-invasive, anti-angiogenic and anti-genotoxic or anti-mutagenic properties along with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory functions. Hence, propolis could be used as an adjuvant for treating various cancers along with standard chemotherapeutic drugs. However, many large-scale clinical studies are needed to justify such applications.
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