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Trending Papers in longevity

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14
Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases
Published: Apr 2018
  • Oxidative stress results from the imbalance between RONS production and antioxidants defence and is primarily involved in “aging theory”. Oxidative stress is also related to several chronic diseases and, together with chronic inflammation, to sarcopenia and frailty in elderly population. Biomarkers of oxidative stress may be useful as diagnostic tool or therapeutic target. Antioxidant therapy, and other nutritional compounds, together with moderate aerobic exercise, may positively affect the clinical damage induced by oxidative stress.
  • Selenium - Many of the physiological roles of the element selenium (Se) are directly attributed to its presence within at least 25 proteins, named selenoproteins, collectively essential for life and also involved in oxidative stress control. Several selenoproteins have been characterized as antioxidant enzymes,
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17
Damaged muscle fibers produce signaling molecules that initiate muscle regeneration
From Paper: Damaged Myofiber-Derived Metabolic Enzymes Act as Activators of Muscle Satellite Cells
Published: Sep 2020
  • The results revealed that quiescent satellite cells associated with myofibers could be activated by factors leaked from damaged myofibers that promote activation and proliferation in coordination with mitogens during muscle regeneration
  • To determine whether activated satellite cells are reversible to the quiescent-like state without cell division, individual muscle fibers were freshly isolated cultured with or without damaged myofibers for 48 hours
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10
Metformin decreases signs of aging in fat cells
From Paper: Metformin alleviates aging-associated cellular senescence of human adipose stem cells and derived adipocytes
Authors:
Mantecon, Matthieu, et al
Published: Oct 2020
  • When aged-donor ASCs were treated with metformin, senescence, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction returned to the levels observed in young-donor ASCs
  • Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction occurred earlier in adipocytes derived from aged-donor than from young-donor ASCs, leading to insulin resistance and impaired adipogenesis
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10
Telomerase gene therapy prevents age-related fibrotic lung disease
From Paper: Telomerase treatment prevents lung profibrotic pathologies associated with physiological aging
Published: Oct 2020
  • The results demonstrate telomere shortening with age in the lungs of wild-type mice, reaching at old ages values similar to those of young G3 Tert−/− mice
  • Mice with a mutation in TERT (telomerase gene) and a control, mice without a TERT mutation, were both given telomerase gene therapy and then assessed for telomere shortening and lung fibrosis at various time points throughout their lives
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8
Extensive weight loss reduces both immune and biological age
From Paper: Extensive weight loss can reduce immune age by altering IgG N-glycosylation
Published: Sep 2020
  • The IgG glycan profile that resulted from bariatric surgery is associated with younger biological age and reflects an enhanced anti-inflammatory IgG potential
  • Bariatric surgery resulted in extensive alterations of the IgG glycome that accompanied progressive weight loss during a one-year follow-up
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14
Plasma replacement / dilution in old mice has a rejuvenation effect
From Paper: Rejuvenation of three germ layers tissues by exchanging old blood plasma with saline-albumin
Published: May 2020
  • This indicates that a currently approved FDA procedure (Therapeutic Plasma Exchange) promotes molecular and functional rejuvenation of the blood in older people, with improved proteomic profile and support for myogenic responses.
  • They found that, rather than needing young blood related factors, replacement of a large volume of old blood with a neutral age physiological fluid (saline supplemented with 5% purified albumin), is sufficient for most if not all observed positive effects on muscle, brain and liver i.e. dilution of "old" factors is more important than addition of new.
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9
Researchers uncover a compound that links mitochondrial health to immune system regulation
From Paper: Alpha-ketoglutarate inhibits Regulatory T cell differentiation by coupling lipidome remodelling to mitochondrial metabolism
  • This study identifies a novel connection between aKG-mediated lipidome remodelling and mitochondrial reprogramming in attenuating polarization of naïve CD4 T lymphocytes to a Treg fate
  • The results found that αKG directly affected the metabolism of Treg-polarized cells because its injection into the flux analyzer immediately increased oxygen consumption and the OCR/ECAR ratio
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13
Reduced insulin signaling in adulthood increases fitness and longevity in a primitive model organism
From Paper: Reduced insulin signalling in adulthood protects soma and germline under mutation accumulation
Published: Aug 2020
  • Fitness of the surviving UV-induced MA lines was higher under daf-2 RNAi
  • This C. elegans study consisted of a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment with downregulated insulin signaling in half of the 400 MA lines by silencing daf-2 gene expression using RNA interference (RNAi) across 40 generations
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6
Intermittent fasting (with feeding in the morning) improves insulin sensitivity in pre-diabetic men
From Paper: Early Time-Restricted Feeding Improves InsulinSensitivity, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative StressEven without Weight Loss in Men with Prediabetes
Intermittent fasting (IF) improves cardiometabolic health; however, it is unknown whether these effects are due solely to weight loss. We conducted the first supervised controlled feeding trial to test whether IF has benefits independent of weight loss by feeding participants enough food to maintain their weight.Our proof-of-concept study also constitutes the first trial of early time-restricted feeding (eTRF), a form of IF that involves eating early in the day to be in alignment with circadian rhythms in metabolism. Men with prediabetes were randomized to eTRF (6-hr feeding period, with dinner before 3 p.m.) or a control schedule (12-hr feeding period) for 5 weeks and later crossed over to the other schedule. eTRF improved insulin sensitivity, bcell responsiveness, blood pres-sure, oxidative stress, and appetite. We demonstrate for the first time in humans that eTRF improves some aspects of cardiometabolic health and that IF’s effects are not solely due to weight loss.
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2
A transcriptome based aging clock near the theoretical limit of accuracy
Aging clocks dissociate biological from chronological age. The estimation of biological age is important for identifying gerontogenes and assessing environmental, nutritional or therapeutic impacts on the aging process. Recently, methylation markers were shown to allow estimation of biological age based on age-dependent somatic epigenetic alterations. However, DNA methylation is absent in some species such as Caenorhabditis elegans and it remains unclear whether and how the epigenetic clocks affect gene expression. Aging clocks based on transcriptomes have suffered from considerable variation in the data and relatively low accuracy. Here, we devised an approach that uses temporal scaling and binarization of C. elegans transcriptomes to define a gene set that predicts biological age with an accuracy that is close to the theoretical limit. Our model accurately predicts the longevity effects of diverse strains, treatments and conditions. The involved genes support a role of specific transcription factors as well as innate immunity and neuronal signaling in the regulation of the aging process. We show that this transcriptome clock can also be applied to human age prediction with high accuracy. This transcriptome aging clock could therefore find wide application in genetic, environmental and therapeutic interventions in the aging process.
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