Oxidative stress results from the imbalance between RONS production and antioxidants defence and is primarily involved in “aging theory”. Oxidative stress is also related to several chronic diseases and, together with chronic inflammation, to sarcopenia and frailty in elderly population. Biomarkers of oxidative stress may be useful as diagnostic tool or therapeutic target. Antioxidant therapy, and other nutritional compounds, together with moderate aerobic exercise, may positively affect the clinical damage induced by oxidative stress.
Selenium - Many of the physiological roles of the element selenium (Se) are directly attributed to its presence within at least 25 proteins, named selenoproteins, collectively essential for life and also involved in oxidative stress control. Several selenoproteins have been characterized as antioxidant enzymes,
The results revealed that quiescent satellite cells associated with myofibers could be activated by factors leaked from damaged myofibers that promote activation and proliferation in coordination with mitogens during muscle regeneration
To determine whether activated satellite cells are reversible to the quiescent-like state without cell division, individual muscle fibers were freshly isolated cultured with or without damaged myofibers for 48 hours
The results demonstrate telomere shortening with age in the lungs of wild-type mice, reaching at old ages values similar to those of young G3 Tert−/− mice
Mice with a mutation in TERT (telomerase gene) and a control, mice without a TERT mutation, were both given telomerase gene therapy and then assessed for telomere shortening and lung fibrosis at various time points throughout their lives
This indicates that a currently approved FDA procedure (Therapeutic Plasma Exchange) promotes molecular and functional rejuvenation of the blood in older people, with improved proteomic profile and support for myogenic responses.
They found that, rather than needing young blood related factors, replacement of a large volume of old blood with a neutral age physiological fluid (saline supplemented with 5% purified albumin), is sufficient for most if not all observed positive effects on muscle,
brain and liver i.e. dilution of "old" factors is more important than addition of new.
Fitness of the surviving UV-induced MA lines was higher under daf-2 RNAi
This C. elegans study consisted of a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment with downregulated insulin signaling in half of the 400 MA lines by silencing daf-2 gene expression using RNA interference (RNAi) across 40 generations
Intermittent fasting (IF) improves cardiometabolic health; however, it is unknown whether these effects are due solely to weight loss. We conducted the first supervised controlled feeding trial to test whether IF has benefits independent of weight loss by feeding participants enough food to maintain their weight.Our proof-of-concept study also constitutes the first trial of early time-restricted feeding (eTRF), a form of IF that involves eating early in the day to be in alignment with circadian rhythms in metabolism. Men with prediabetes were randomized to eTRF (6-hr feeding period, with dinner before 3 p.m.) or a control schedule (12-hr feeding period) for 5 weeks and later crossed over to the other schedule. eTRF improved insulin sensitivity, bcell responsiveness, blood pres-sure, oxidative stress, and appetite. We demonstrate for the first time in humans that eTRF improves some aspects of cardiometabolic health and that IF’s effects are not solely due to weight loss.
Aging clocks dissociate biological from chronological age. The estimation of biological age is important for identifying gerontogenes and assessing environmental, nutritional or therapeutic impacts on the aging process. Recently, methylation markers were shown to allow estimation of biological age based on age-dependent somatic epigenetic alterations. However, DNA methylation is absent in some species such as Caenorhabditis elegans and it remains unclear whether and how the epigenetic clocks affect gene expression. Aging clocks based on transcriptomes have suffered from considerable variation in the data and relatively low accuracy. Here, we devised an approach that uses temporal scaling and binarization of C. elegans transcriptomes to define a gene set that predicts biological age with an accuracy that is close to the theoretical limit. Our model accurately predicts the longevity effects of diverse strains, treatments and conditions. The involved genes support a role of specific transcription factors as well as innate immunity and neuronal signaling in the regulation of the aging process. We show that this transcriptome clock can also be applied to human age prediction with high accuracy. This transcriptome aging clock could therefore find wide application in genetic, environmental and therapeutic interventions in the aging process.