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3
Date Added: Nov 13, 2021
Date Added: Nov 13, 2021
Recent advancements in the field of machine learning (ML) provide opportunity to conduct research on autonomous devices for a variety of applications. Intelligent decision-making is a critical task for self-driving systems. An attempt is made in this study to use a deep learning (DL) approach for the early detection of road cracks, potholes, and the yellow lane. The accuracy is not sufficient after training with the default model. To enhance accuracy, a convolutional neural network (CNN) model with 13 convolutional layers, a softmax layer as an output layer, and two fully connected layers (FCN) are constructed. In order to achieve the deeper propagation and to prevent saturation in the training phase, mish activation is employed in the first 12 layers with a rectified linear unit (ReLU) activation function. The upgraded CNN model performs better than the default CNN model in terms of accuracy. For the varied situation, a revised and enriched dataset for road cracks, potholes, and the yellow lane is created. The yellow lane is detected and tracked in order to move the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) autonomously by following yellow lane. After identifying a yellow lane, the UAV performs autonomous navigation while concurrently detecting road cracks and potholes using the robot operating system within the UAV. The performance model is benchmarked using performance measures, such as accuracy, sensitivity, F1-score, F2-score, and dice-coefficient, which demonstrate that the suggested technique produces better outcomes.
102
Date Added: Oct 7, 2021
Date Added: Oct 7, 2021
While the vast majority of well-structured single protein chains can now be predicted to high accuracy due to the recent AlphaFold [1] model, the prediction of multi-chain protein complexes remains a challenge in many cases. In this work, we demonstrate that an AlphaFold model trained specifically for multimeric inputs of known stoichiometry, which we call AlphaFold-Multimer, significantly increases accuracy of predicted multimeric interfaces over input-adapted single-chain AlphaFold while maintaining high intra-chain accuracy. On a benchmark dataset of 17 heterodimer proteins without templates (introduced in [2]) we achieve at least medium accuracy (DockQ [3] ≥ 0.49) on 14 targets and high accuracy (DockQ ≥ 0.8) on 6 targets, compared to 9 targets of at least medium accuracy and 4 of high accuracy for the previous state of the art system (an AlphaFold-based system from [2]). We also predict structures for a large dataset of 4,433 recent protein complexes, from which we score all non-redundant interfaces with low template identity. For heteromeric interfaces we successfully predict the interface (DockQ ≥ 0.23) in 67% of cases, and produce high accuracy predictions (DockQ ≥ 0.8) in 23% of cases, an improvement of +25 and +11 percentage points over the flexible linker modification of AlphaFold [4] respectively. For homomeric interfaces we successfully predict the interface in 69% of cases, and produce high accuracy predictions in 34% of cases, an improvement of +5 percentage points in both instances.
98
Date Added: Oct 27, 2021
Date Added: Oct 27, 2021
This paper presents the usage of artificial neural networks (NNs) in bicycle route planning. This research aimed to check the possibility of NNs to transfer human expertise in bicycle route design by training the NN on an already established set of bicycle routes and then using the trained NN to design the routes on the novel area. We created two NNs capable of choosing the best route among the given road network by training them on two different areas. The bicycle routes produced by NNs were the same at best and had 75% overlap at the worst compared to those produced by human experts. Furthermore, the mean square error for all of our NN models varied from 0.015 and 0.081. We compared this new approach to the traditional multicriteria GIS (geographic information system) analysis (MA) that requires the human expert to define the bicycle route selection criteria. The benefit of using NN over the MA was that the NN directly transfers the human expertise to a model. In contrast, the MA needs the expert to select multiple criteria and adjust their weights carefully.
190
Date Added: Jul 15, 2021
Date Added: Jul 15, 2021
DeepMind presented remarkably accurate predictions at the recent CASP14 protein structure prediction assessment conference. We explored network architectures incorporating related ideas and obtained the best performance with a three-track network in which information at the 1D sequence level, the 2D distance map level, and the 3D coordinate level is successively transformed and integrated. The three-track network produces structure predictions with accuracies approaching those of DeepMind in CASP14, enables the rapid solution of challenging X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM structure modeling problems, and provides insights into the functions of proteins of currently unknown structure. The network also enables rapid generation of accurate protein-protein complex models from sequence information alone, short circuiting traditional approaches which require modeling of individual subunits followed by docking. We make the method available to the scientific community to speed biological research.
4
Date Added: Oct 25, 2021
Date Added: Oct 25, 2021
The theory and applications of Smart Factories and Industry 4.0 are increasing the entry into the industry. It is common in industry to start converting exclusive parts, of their production, into this new paradigm rather than converting whole production lines all at once. In Europe and Sweden, recent political decisions are taken to reach the target of greenhouse gas emission reduction. One possible solution is to replace concrete in buildings with Cross Laminated Timber. In the last years, equipment and software that have been custom made for a certain task, are now cheaper and can be adapted to fit more processes than earlier possible. This in combination, with lessons learned from the automotive industry, makes it possible to take the necessary steps and start redesigning and building tomorrows automated and flexible production systems in the wood industry. This paper presents a proof of concept of an automated inspection system, for wood surfaces, where concepts found in Industry 4.0, such as industrial Internet of things (IIoT), smart factory, flexible automation, artificial intelligence (AI), and cyber physical systems, are utilized. The inspection system encompasses, among other things, of the shelf software and hardware, open source software, and standardized, modular, and mobile process modules. The design of the system is conducted with future expansion in mind, where new parts and functions can be added as well as removed.
4
Date Added: Nov 1, 2021
Date Added: Nov 1, 2021
Supervised machine-learning models boast remarkable predictive capabilities. But can you trust your model? Will it work in deployment? What else can it tell you about the world?
2
Date Added: Jul 26, 2021
Date Added: Jul 26, 2021
Deep Learning has improved multi-fold in recent years and it has been playing a great role in image classification which also includes medical imaging. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been performing well in detecting many diseases including coronary artery disease, malaria, Alzheimer’s disease, different dental diseases, and Parkinson’s disease. Like other cases, CNN has a substantial prospect in detecting COVID-19 patients with medical images like chest X-rays and CTs. Coronavirus or COVID-19 has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). As of 8 August 2020, the total COVID-19 confirmed cases are 19.18 M and deaths are 0.716 M worldwide. Detecting Coronavirus positive patients is very important in preventing the spread of this virus. On this conquest, a CNN model is proposed to detect COVID-19 patients from chest X-ray images. Two more CNN models with different number of convolution layers and three other models based on pretrained ResNet50, VGG-16 and VGG-19 are evaluated with comparative analytical analysis. All six models are trained and validated with Dataset 1 and Dataset 2. Dataset 1 has 201 normal and 201 COVID-19 chest X-rays whereas Dataset 2 is comparatively larger with 659 normal and 295 COVID-19 chest X-ray images. The proposed model performs with an accuracy of 98.3% and a precision of 96.72% with Dataset 2. This model gives the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve area of 0.983 and F1-score of 98.3 with Dataset 2. Moreover, this work shows a comparative analysis of how change in convolutional layers and increase in dataset affect classifying performances.
3
Date Added: Aug 6, 2021
Date Added: Aug 6, 2021
This article reviewed the state-of-the-art applications of the Internet of things (IoT) technology applied in homes for making them smart, automated, and digitalized in many respects. The literature presented various applications, systems, or methods and reported the results of using IoT, artificial intelligence (AI), and geographic information system (GIS) at homes. Because the technology has been advancing and users are experiencing IoT boom for smart built environment applications, especially smart homes and smart energy systems, it is necessary to identify the gaps, relation between current methods, and provide a coherent instruction of the whole process of designing smart homes. This article reviewed relevant papers within databases, such as Scopus, including journal papers published in between 2010 and 2019. These papers were then analyzed in terms of bibliography and content to identify more related systems, practices, and contributors. A designed systematic review method was used to identify and select the relevant papers, which were then reviewed for their content by means of coding. The presented systematic critical review focuses on systems developed and technologies used for smart homes. The main question is ”What has been learned from a decade trailing smart system developments in different fields?”. We found that there is a considerable gap in the integration of AI and IoT and the use of geospatial data in smart home development. It was also found that there is a large gap in the literature in terms of limited integrated systems for energy efficiency and aged care system development. This article would enable researchers and professionals to fully understand those gaps in IoT-based environments and suggest ways to fill the gaps while designing smart homes where users have a higher level of thermal comfort while saving energy and greenhouse gas emissions. This article also raised new challenging questions on how IoT and existing developed systems could be improved and be further developed to address other issues of energy saving, which can steer the research direction to full smart systems. This would significantly help to design fully automated assistive systems to improve quality of life and decrease energy consumption.
12
Date Added: Jul 24, 2021
Date Added: Jul 24, 2021
Context. Solar activity plays a quintessential role in affecting the interplanetary medium and space weather around Earth. Remote-sensing instruments on board heliophysics space missions provide a pool of information about solar activity by measuring the solar magnetic field and the emission of light from the multilayered, multithermal, and dynamic solar atmosphere. Extreme-UV (EUV) wavelength observations from space help in understanding the subtleties of the outer layers of the Sun, that is, the chromosphere and the corona. Unfortunately, instruments such as the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), suffer from time-dependent degradation that reduces their sensitivity. The current best calibration techniques rely on flights of sounding rockets to maintain absolute calibration. These flights are infrequent, complex, and limited to a single vantage point, however. Aims. We aim to develop a novel method based on machine learning (ML) that exploits spatial patterns on the solar surface across multiwavelength observations to autocalibrate the instrument degradation. Methods. We established two convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures that take either single-channel or multichannel input and trained the models using the SDOML dataset. The dataset was further augmented by randomly degrading images at each epoch, with the training dataset spanning nonoverlapping months with the test dataset. We also developed a non-ML baseline model to assess the gain of the CNN models. With the best trained models, we reconstructed the AIA multichannel degradation curves of 2010–2020 and compared them with the degradation curves based on sounding-rocket data. Results. Our results indicate that the CNN-based models significantly outperform the non-ML baseline model in calibrating instrument degradation. Moreover, multichannel CNN outperforms the single-channel CNN, which suggests that cross-channel relations between different EUV channels are important to recover the degradation profiles. The CNN-based models reproduce the degradation corrections derived from the sounding-rocket cross-calibration measurements within the experimental measurement uncertainty, indicating that it performs equally well as current techniques. Conclusions. Our approach establishes the framework for a novel technique based on CNNs to calibrate EUV instruments. We envision that this technique can be adapted to other imaging or spectral instruments operating at other wavelengths.