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Trending Papers in metascience

A review of the factors driving and preventing scientists from openly sharing research data
From Paper: What drives and inhibits researchers to share and use open research data? A systematic literature review to analyze factors influencing open research data adoption
Anneke Zuiderwijk, Rhythima Shinde, Wei Jeng
Published: Sep 2020
  • The identified inhibitors for open data sharing mostly relate to legislation and regulation, facilitating conditions, and expected performance, in the sense that openly sharing research data can lead to worse performance
  • Most drivers for openly sharing research data are related to personal and intrinsic motivations
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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The network structure of scientific revolutions
Ju, Harang, et al
Published: Oct 2020
  • The authors used Wikipedia to formulate knowledge on growing networks of articles and their hyperlinked inter-relations
  • This paper demonstrates that scientific concept networks grow not by expanding from their core but rather by creating and filling knowledge gaps, a process which produces discoveries that are more frequently awarded Nobel prizes than others
Submitted by Age Old
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Improving Transparency, Falsifiability, and Rigour by Making Hypothesis Tests Machine Readable
Published: Oct 2020
  • This paper describes the benefits provided by hypothesis tests and gives examples of how to create machine-readable statistical predictions
  • The authors propose that the gold standard for well-specified hypothesis tests should be a statistical prediction that is machine-readable.
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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40% of animal studies are never published - a call for preregistration in preclinical research
From Paper: Publication rate in preclinical research: a plea for preregistration
Published: Aug 2020
  • This study tracked a selection of animal study protocols approved in the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands, to assess whether these have led to a publication with a follow-up period of 7 years
  • The authors believe the data in this study underline the need for preclinical preregistration, in view of the risk of reporting and publication bias in preclinical research
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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How many reviewers are required to obtain reliable evaluations of NIH R01 grant proposals?
Published: Sep 2019
  • The findings show that across all dimensions of NIH’s official rubric there was low agreement among reviewers in their judgments of scientific merit
  • This study investigated the degree of agreement by leveraging data from a recent experiment with 412 scientists. Each of these scientists acted as primary reviewers for three of 48 NIH R01 grant proposals, half of which had been funded and half unfunded
Submitted by Naoyuki Sunami
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Low agreement among reviewers evaluating the same NIH grant applications
Pier, Elizabeth L., et al
Published: Mar 2018
  • The authors state their analyses suggest that for high-quality applications, this ranking process has a large random component, since reviewers disagree about how the number of weaknesses and the numeric rating are related to each other.
  • The results showed that different reviewers assigned different preliminary ratings and listed different numbers of strengths and weaknesses for the same applications
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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82% of alcohol-related health studies were either authored or funded by alcohol companies
From Paper: Declared funding and authorship by alcohol industry actors in the scientific literature: a bibliometric study
Published: Sep 2020
  • This study investigates the extent and type of scientific research 1918–2019 which was supported by the alcohol industry, including alcohol companies themselves and other organizations, such as trade associations
  • The analysis included 13 481 unique records, 11 014 (82%) were authored or funded by alcohol companies and 2488 (18%) were authored or funded by other organizations
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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How Mentorship Can Influence Academic Success
From Paper: Intellectual synthesis in mentorship determines success in academic careers
Published: Nov 2018
  • This study identified factors related to mentorship that influence the academic success of postdoctoral trainees in biomedical research. Limited data in other life science leaves uncertain correlations and remains to be investigated.
  • The objective was to uncover how patterns in the network of mentors and protégés shape their academic success. Metrics used but not limited to: academic proliferation (the number of progeny trained by a mentor, sometimes termed academic fecundity), publication and citation rates, funding levels, attrition rate, and scientific proficiency.
Submitted by Cullyn Newman
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Laypeople Can Predict Which Social-Science Studies Will Be Replicated Successfully
Published: Aug 2020
  • Prediction accuracy further increased with access to the statistical evidence obtained in the original studies
  • The authors obtained data from 257 participants, who were recruited from the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk; n = 83), the online participant pool of first-year psychology students at the University of Amsterdam (n = 138), and social-media platforms such as Facebook (n = 36)
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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Open Access to Federally Funded Research Data
From Paper: Open Access to Federally Funded Research Data
  • The next President should issue an Executive Order (EO) requiring each federal agency that directly supports scientific research and development to develop and implement an Open Science Data Policy.
  • This is a policy/advocacy piece (not research) which argues that maximizing the value of taxpayer-funded research means making the results of—and the underlying data from—that research openly available, discoverable, and usable. Public access to scientific data and results fuels innovation and creates jobs.
Submitted by Brian Armstrong
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