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13
Date Added: Nov 23, 2021
Date Added: Nov 23, 2021
Importance Influenza has been associated with the risk of developing Parkinson disease, but the association is controversial. Objective To examine whether prior influenza and other infections are associated with Parkinson disease more than 10 years after infection. Design, Setting, and Participants This case-control study used data from 1977 to 2016 from the Danish National Patient Registry. All individuals with Parkinson disease, excluding those with drug-induced parkinsonism, were included and matched to 5 population controls on sex, age, and date of Parkinson diagnosis. Data were analyzed from December 2019 to September 2021. Exposures Infections were ascertained between 1977 and 2016 and categorized by time from infection to Parkinson disease diagnosis. To increase specificity of influenza diagnoses, influenza exposure was restricted to months of peak influenza activity. Main Outcomes and Measures Parkinson disease diagnoses were identified between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2016. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated by conditional logistic regression overall and stratified by time between infection and Parkinson disease (5 years or less, more than 5 to 10 years, more than 10 years). Results Of 61 626 included individuals, 23 826 (38.7%) were female, and 53 202 (86.3%) were older than 60 years. A total of 10 271 individuals with Parkinson disease and 51 355 controls were identified. Influenza diagnosed at any time during a calendar year was associated with Parkinson disease more than 10 years later (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.11-2.71). When influenza exposure was restricted to months of highest influenza activity, an elevated OR with a wider confidence interval was found (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.80-2.89). There was no evidence of an association with any type of infection more than 10 years prior to Parkinson disease (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.98-1.10). Several specific infections yielded increased odds of Parkinson disease within 5 years of infection, but results were null when exposure occurred more than 10 years prior. Conclusions and Relevance In this case-control study, influenza was associated with diagnoses of Parkinson disease more than 10 years after infection. These observational data suggest a link between influenza and Parkinson disease but do not demonstrate causality. While other infections were associated with Parkinson disease diagnoses soon after infection, null associations after more than 10 years suggest these shorter-term associations are not causal.
18
Date Added: Nov 4, 2021
Date Added: Nov 4, 2021
The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria calls for the discovery of new antibiotics. Yet, for decades, traditional discovery strategies have not yielded new classes of antimicrobial. Here, by mining the human proteome via an algorithm that relies on the sequence length, net charge, average hydrophobicity and other physicochemical properties of antimicrobial peptides, we report the identification of 2,603 encrypted peptide antibiotics that are encoded in proteins with biological function unrelated to the immune system. We show that the encrypted peptides kill pathogenic bacteria by targeting their membrane, modulate gut and skin commensals, do not readily select for bacterial resistance, and possess anti-infective activity in skin abscess and thigh infection mouse models. We also show, in vitro and in the two mouse models of infection, that encrypted antibiotic peptides from the same biogeographical area display synergistic antimicrobial activity. Our algorithmic strategy allows for the rapid mining of proteomic data and opens up new routes for the discovery of candidate antibiotics.
3
Date Added: Sep 3, 2021
Date Added: Sep 3, 2021
cGAS/DncV-like nucleotidyltransferase (CD-NTase) enzymes are immune sensors that synthesize nucleotide second messengers and initiate antiviral responses in bacterial and animal cells. Here, we discover Enterobacter cloacae CD-NTase-associated protein 4 (Cap4) as a founding member of a diverse family of >2,000 bacterial receptors that respond to CD-NTase signals. Structures of Cap4 reveal a promiscuous DNA endonuclease domain activated through ligand-induced oligomerization. Oligonucleotide recognition occurs through an appended SAVED domain that is an unexpected fusion of two CRISPR-associated Rossman fold (CARF) subunits co-opted from type III CRISPR immunity. Like a lock and key, SAVED effectors exquisitely discriminate 2′–5′- and 3′–5′-linked bacterial cyclic oligonucleotide signals and enable specific recognition of at least 180 potential nucleotide second messenger species. Our results reveal SAVED CARF family proteins as major nucleotide second messenger receptors in CBASS and CRISPR immune defense and extend the importance of linkage specificity beyond mammalian cGAS-STING signaling.
3
Date Added: Sep 23, 2021
Date Added: Sep 23, 2021
Abstract In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. In addition, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general.
3
Date Added: Nov 1, 2021
Date Added: Nov 1, 2021
Oral cancer is among the deadliest types of malignancy due to the late stage at which it is usually diagnosed, leaving the patient with an average five-year survival rate of less than 50%. The booming field of biosensing and point of care diagnostics can, in this regard, play a major role in the early detection of oral cancer. Saliva is gaining interest as an alternative biofluid for non-invasive diagnostics, and many salivary biomarkers of oral cancer have been proposed. While these findings are promising for the application of salivaomics tools in routine practice, studies on larger cohorts are still needed for clinical validation. This review aims to summarize the most recent development in the field of biosensing related to the detection of salivary biomarkers commonly associated with oral cancer. An introduction to oral cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment is given to define the clinical problem clearly, then saliva as an alternative biofluid is presented, along with its advantages, disadvantages, and collection procedures. Finally, a brief paragraph on the most promising salivary biomarkers introduces the sensing technologies commonly exploited to detect oral cancer markers in saliva. Hence this review provides a comprehensive overview of both the clinical and technological advantages and challenges associated with oral cancer detection through salivary biomarkers.
68
Date Added: Sep 3, 2021
Date Added: Sep 3, 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a global threat to human health. Natural transformation is an important pathway for horizontal gene transfer, which facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among bacteria. Although it is suspected that artificial sweeteners could exert antimicrobial effects, little is known whether artificial sweeteners would also affect horizontal transfer of ARGs via transformation. Here we demonstrate that four commonly used artificial sweeteners (saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium) promote transfer of ARGs via natural transformation in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, a model organism for studying competence and transformation. Such phenomenon was also found in a Gram-positive human pathogen Bacillus subtilis and mice faecal microbiome. We reveal that exposure to these sweeteners increases cell envelope permeability and results in an upregulation of genes encoding DNA uptake and translocation (Com) machinery. In addition, we find that artificial sweeteners induce an increase in plasmid persistence in transformants. We propose a mathematical model established to predict the long-term effects on transformation dynamics under exposure to these sweeteners. Collectively, our findings offer insights into natural transformation promoted by artificial sweeteners and highlight the need to evaluate these environmental contaminants for their antibiotic-like side effects.
8
Date Added: Jun 27, 2021
Date Added: Jun 27, 2021
Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, the population density of the world is intense in developing countries. This overgrowing population has resulted in the production of huge amounts of waste/refused water due to various anthropogenic activities. Household, municipal corporations (MC), urban local bodies (ULBs), and industries produce a huge amount of waste water, which is discharged into nearby water bodies and streams/rivers without proper treatment, resulting in water pollution. This mismanaged treatment of wastewater leads to various challenges like loss of energy to treat the wastewater and scarcity of fresh water, beside various water born infections. However, all these major issues can provide solutions to each other. Most of the wastewater generated by ULBs and industries is rich in various biopolymers like starch, lactose, glucose lignocellulose, protein, lipids, fats, and minerals, etc. These biopolymers can be converted into sustainable biofuels, i.e., ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, biogas, hydrogen, methane, biohythane, etc., through its bioremediation followed by dark fermentation (DF) and anaerobic digestion (AD). The key challenge is to plan strategies in such a way that they not only help in the treatment of wastewater, but also produce some valuable energy driven products from it. This review will deal with various strategies being used in the treatment of wastewater as well as for production of some valuable energy products from it to tackle the upcoming future demands and challenges of fresh water and energy crisis, along with sustainable development. View Full-Text
111
Date Added: Jul 1, 2021
Date Added: Jul 1, 2021
Social interactions among animals mediate essential behaviours, including mating, nurturing, and defence1,2. The gut microbiota contribute to social activity in mice3,4, but the gut–brain connections that regulate this complex behaviour and its underlying neural basis are unclear5,6. Here we show that the microbiome modulates neuronal activity in specific brain regions of male mice to regulate canonical stress responses and social behaviours. Social deviation in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice is associated with elevated levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, which is primarily produced by activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Adrenalectomy, antagonism of glucocorticoid receptors, or pharmacological inhibition of corticosterone synthesis effectively corrects social deficits following microbiome depletion. Genetic ablation of glucocorticoid receptors in specific brain regions or chemogenetic inactivation of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that produce corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) reverse social impairments in antibiotic-treated mice. Conversely, specific activation of CRH-expressing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus induces social deficits in mice with a normal microbiome. Via microbiome profiling and in vivo selection, we identify a bacterial species, Enterococcus faecalis, that promotes social activity and reduces corticosterone levels in mice following social stress. These studies suggest that specific gut bacteria can restrain the activation of the HPA axis, and show that the microbiome can affect social behaviours through discrete neuronal circuits that mediate stress responses in the brain.
16
Date Added: Jul 11, 2021
Date Added: Jul 11, 2021
We hypothesized that the highly controlled pattern of gene expression that is essential for liver regeneration is encoded by an epigenetic code set in quiescent hepatocytes. Here we report that epigenetic and transcriptomic profiling of quiescent and regenerating mouse livers define chromatin states that dictate gene expression and transposon repression. We integrate ATACseq and DNA methylation profiling with ChIPseq for the histone marks H3K4me3, H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 and the histone variant H2AZ to identify 6 chromatin states with distinct functional characteristics. We show that genes involved in proliferation reside in active states, but are marked with H3K27me3 and silenced in quiescent livers. We find that during regeneration, H3K27me3 is depleted from their promoters, facilitating their dynamic expression. These findings demonstrate that hepatic chromatin states in quiescent livers predict gene expression and that pro-regenerative genes are maintained in active chromatin states, but are restrained by H3K27me3, permitting a rapid and synchronized response during regeneration.
118
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
Date Added: Jun 7, 2021
We present a global atlas of 4,728 metagenomic samples from mass-transit systems in 60 cities over 3 years, representing the first systematic, worldwide catalog of the urban microbial ecosystem. This atlas provides an annotated, geospatial profile of microbial strains, functional characteristics, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) markers, and genetic elements, including 10,928 viruses, 1,302 bacteria, 2 archaea, and 838,532 CRISPR arrays not found in reference databases. We identified 4,246 known species of urban microorganisms and a consistent set of 31 species found in 97% of samples that were distinct from human commensal organisms. Profiles of AMR genes varied widely in type and density across cities. Cities showed distinct microbial taxonomic signatures that were driven by climate and geographic differences. These results constitute a high-resolution global metagenomic atlas that enables discovery of organisms and genes, highlights potential public health and forensic applications, and provides a culture-independent view of AMR burden in cities.