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Trending Papers in microbiology

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Authors: Acman, Mislav, et al
Published: Jan 2021
Authors: Acman, Mislav, et al
Published: Jan 2021
The mobile resistance gene blaNDM encodes the NDM enzyme capable of hydrolysing carbapenems, a class of antibiotics used to treat some of the most severe bacterial infections. blaNDM is globally distributed across a variety of Gram-negative bacteria and is typically located within a transposon-rich genomic region common to multiple plasmids. We compiled a dataset of over 2000 bacterial genomes harbouring the blaNDM gene including 112 new PacBio hybrid assemblies from China and developed a novel computational approach to track structural variants in bacterial genomes. We were able to correlate specific structural variants with plasmid backbones, bacterial host species and sampling locations, and identified multiple transposition events that occurred during the global dissemination of blaNDM. Our results highlight the importance of transposons in the global spread of antimicrobial resistance genes and suggest that genetic recombination, rather than mutation, was the dominant force driving the evolution of the blaNDM genomic region.
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Oyeranti Oyelade
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Oyeranti Oyelade
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Olubuse Gbenga
2
Authors: Morris, Dylan H, et al
Published: Nov 2020
Authors: Morris, Dylan H, et al
Published: Nov 2020
  • Measuring or even observing antibody selection in natural influenza virus infections is likely to be difficult because it is inefficient and consequently rare.
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Emmanuel Williams
3
Published: Dec 2020
Published: Dec 2020
The life cycles of African trypanosomes are dependent on several differentiation steps, where parasites transition between replicative and non-replicative forms specialised for infectivity and survival in mammal and tsetse fly hosts. Here, we use single cell transcriptomics (scRNA-seq) to dissect the asynchronous differentiation of replicative slender to transmissible stumpy bloodstream form . Using oligopeptide-induced differentiation, we accurately modelled stumpy development in vitro and captured the transcriptomes of 9,344 slender and stumpy stage parasites, as well as parasites transitioning between these extremes. Using this framework, we detail the relative order of biological events during development, profile dynamic gene expression patterns and identify putative novel regulators. Using marker genes to deduce the cell cycle phase of each parasite, we additionally map the cell cycle of proliferating parasites and position stumpy cell cycle exit at early G1, with subsequent progression to a distinct G0 state. We also explored the role of one gene, ZC3H20, with transient elevated expression at the key slender to stumpy transition point. By scRNA-seq analysis of ZC3H20 null parasites exposed to oligopeptides and mapping the resulting transcriptome to our atlas of differentiation, we identified the point of action for this key regulator. Using a developmental transition relevant for both virulence in the mammalian host and disease transmission, our data provide a paradigm for the temporal mapping of differentiation events and regulators in the trypanosome life cycle.
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Oyeranti Oyelade
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Oyeranti Oyelade
248
Authors: Junna Kawasaki, Shohei Kojima, Yahiro Mukai, Keizo Tomonaga, Masayuki Horie
Published: Dec 2020
Authors: Junna Kawasaki, Shohei Kojima, Yahiro Mukai, Keizo Tomonaga, Masayuki Horie
Published: Dec 2020
Although viruses have threatened our ancestors for millions of years, prehistoric epidemics of viruses are largely unknown. Endogenous bornavirus-like elements (EBLs) are ancient viral sequences that have been integrated into animal genomes. These elements can be used as molecular fossil records to trace past bornaviral infections. In this study, we systematically identified EBLs in vertebrate genomes and revealed the history of bornavirus infections over nearly 100 million years. We found that ancient bornaviral infections have occurred in diverse vertebrate lineages, especially in primate ancestors. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that primate ancestors had been infected with various bornaviral lineages during evolution. Moreover, EBLs in primate genomes formed clades according to their integration ages, suggesting that epidemic lineages of bornaviruses had changed chronologically. However, we found that some bornaviral lineages coexisted with primate ancestors and underwent repeated endogenizations for tens of millions of years. Furthermore, this viral lineage that coexisted with primate ancestors was also endogenized in some ancestral bats. Notably, the geographic distributions of these bat ancestors have been reported to overlap with the migration route of primate ancestors, suggesting that long-term virus-host coexistence could have expanded the geographic distributions of the viral lineage and might have spread their infections to new hosts. Thus, our findings describe hidden virus-host co-evolutionary history over geological timescales, including chronological change in epidemic bornaviral lineages, long-term virus-host coexistence, and expansion of viral infections.
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Esosa Alimele Morgans
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Esosa Alimele Morgans
5
Published: Nov 2020
Published: Nov 2020
  • Due to their slower growth, these cells will only be present in low abundance in the cancer cell population at the initiation of treatment. Still, they may dominate the population in later stages of treatment due to their lower sensitivity to treatment. If the cancer population is driven to low numbers, it becomes vulnerable to stochastic extinction.These stochastic extinction events will be primarily driven by the traits of the slow-growing subset of cancer cells, which might create a reservoir of cells that are less vulnerable to treatment, and eventually grow again once treatment is terminated and cause a re-lapse.
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Titus Osikhiana Ogahbrai
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From Paper: Transmission and protection against re-infection in the ferret model with the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 reference isolate
Published: Nov 2020
From Paper: Transmission and protection against re-infection in the ferret model with the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 reference isolate
Published: Nov 2020
  • To determine if prior infection was protective against re-infection, the donor ferrets from the initial respiratory and direct contact transmission studies were re-challenged at day 28 and 56 post-primary infection, respectively. After virus challenge, animals were monitored for clinical illness, and nasal wash samples were collected every other day for 9 days to assay for levels of vRNA and infectious virus.
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Francisco Akwaeze
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Francisco Akwaeze
3
From Paper: Heterogenous response to R-pyocin killing in populations of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> sourced from cystic fibrosis lungs
Published: Nov 2020
From Paper: Heterogenous response to R-pyocin killing in populations of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> sourced from cystic fibrosis lungs
Published: Nov 2020
  • Our findings suggest there is likely heterogeneity in response to other types of LPS-binding antimicrobials, such as phage, highlighting the necessity of further studying the potential of LPS-binding antimicrobial particles as alternative therapies in chronic infections.
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Francisco Akwaeze
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Francisco Akwaeze
3
From Paper: Freshwater monitoring by nanopore sequencing
Authors: Urban, Lara, et al
Published: Nov 2020
From Paper: Freshwater monitoring by nanopore sequencing
Authors: Urban, Lara, et al
Published: Nov 2020
  • Important of nanopore sequencing
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Haramidey Monsurat
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Haramidey Monsurat
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