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Trending Papers in neuroscience

Reduced heart rate variability is associated with vulnerability to depression
Published: Sep 2020
  • The results suggest that reduced HRV is likely to be implicated in the risk of developing full-blown depression, rather than being a mere correlate of current depressive state
  • Self-reported psychological measures and three-minute resting-state ECG were collected in two at-risk populations [group with dysphoria (n = 27), group with past depression (n = 16)] and in a control group (n = 25)
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Stem cells administered via the nose can help treat schizophrenia
From Paper: Mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles improve behavioral and biochemical deficits in a phencyclidine model of schizophrenia
Tsivion-Visbord, Hadas, et al
Published: Sep 2020
  • MSCs-EVs treatment significantly restored a normal social pattern in these mice, as shown in a heat map representation of the time spent exploring the chambers and by quantitative measurement of that activity
  • The intranasal route for administration of drugs is especially advantageous for CNS access, convenient to use and can improve patient compliance. Another advantage of using MSCs-EVs is their ability to migrate to the site of injury, demonstrated in studies done by our research group and by others
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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Adaptation of the human auditory cortex to changing background noise
Published: Jun 2019
  • These finding provides insight on the dynamic and adaptive properties of speech processing in the human auditory cortex that enables a listener to suppress the deleterious effects of environmental noise and focus on the foreground sound in order to make speech a reliable means of communication.
  • Results include: neural adaptation to changing background condition, suppression of the representation of noise features, adaptation enhances to phonetic distinctions, adaptation magnitude variation in neural sites, lack of significant influence on adaptation from attentional focus, and examination of spatial organization of adaptation patterns.
Submitted by Cullyn Newman
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The crystal structure of the 5-HT2a receptor when bound to LSD
From Paper: Structure of a Hallucinogen-Activated Gq-Coupled 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor
Published: Sep 2020
  • These findings could help pharmacologists design drugs that elicit the therapeutic effects of psychedelic hallucinogens without unwanted side-effects
  • This study determined the active-state structure of the 5-HT2a receptor when bound to LSD - a prototypical psychedelic hallucinogen
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
A review of the common neural circuits and molecular signaling pathways between autism spectrum disorder and drug addiction
From Paper: Autism Spectrum Disorders and Drug Addiction: Common Pathways, Common Molecules, Distinct Disorders?
Published: Feb 2016
  • Rodent models of ASDs and addiction obviously lack the nuance and specificity of the clinical condition, but some interesting similarities in repetitive behavioral patterns seem to suggest common striatal circuitry may be affected in both disorders
  • Given this established link between addiction and D1-medium spiny neuron in the nucleus accumbens, it is interesting that recent reports linked these same cells to social behavior in wild-type mice, as well as repetitive behavior in mice carrying ASD-associated mutations
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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Could a neuroscientist understand a microprocessor?
Eric Jonas, Konrad Kording
Published: May 2016
  • The authors conclude that neuroscience is held back by the fact that it is hard to evaluate if a conclusion is correct; the complexity of the systems under study and their experimental inaccessibility make the assessment of algorithmic and data analytic techniques challenging at best
  • Within this paper, the authors apply the various techniques that are currently used in neuroscience we will ask how the analyses bring us closer to an understanding of the microprocessor in an attempt to understand how it controls three classic videogames
Retrieved from biorxiv
The youngest children in a classroom are more likely to be medicated for ADHD
From Paper: Annual Research Review: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder late birthdate effect common in both high and low prescribing international jurisdictions: a systematic review
Whitely, Martin, et al
Published: Jan 2019
  • The authors believe these findings indicate that ADHD may be misdiagnosed in these younger children and is possibly more representative of a natural lack of maturity compared to the average student in their classroom
  • It is clear that it is the norm internationally for the youngest children in a classroom to be at increased risk of being diagnosed with and medicated for ADHD, even in jurisdictions with relatively low prescribing rates
Submitted by Will McBurnie
Neuroscience Needs Behavior
From Paper: Neuroscience Needs Behavior: Correcting a Reductionist Bias
Published: Feb 2017
  • Explanation of results at the neural level are dependent on the higher-level vocabulary obtained from behavior studies. Lower levels of explanation does not "explain away" higher levels (does not mean understanding).
  • Lately, neuroscience has been focused on data driven recordings in circuits due to technology and techniques that allow for causal manipulation and rapid acquisition of big data. Whereas behaviorally driven neuroscience has been largely neglected.
Submitted by Xihe Xie
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How Mentorship Can Influence Academic Success
From Paper: Intellectual synthesis in mentorship determines success in academic careers
Published: Nov 2018
  • This study identified factors related to mentorship that influence the academic success of postdoctoral trainees in biomedical research. Limited data in other life science leaves uncertain correlations and remains to be investigated.
  • The objective was to uncover how patterns in the network of mentors and protégés shape their academic success. Metrics used but not limited to: academic proliferation (the number of progeny trained by a mentor, sometimes termed academic fecundity), publication and citation rates, funding levels, attrition rate, and scientific proficiency.
Submitted by Cullyn Newman
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The Argo: a novel brain-computer interface that contains the highest channel count in vivo neural recording system built to-date
From Paper: The Argo: A 65,536 channel recording system for high density neural recording in vivo
Sahasrabuddhe, Kunal, et al
Published: Jul 2020
  • This system is designed for cortical recordings, compatible with both penetrating and surface microelectrodes
  • The Argo system is the highest channel count in vivo neural recording system built to date, supporting simultaneous recording from 65,536 channels, sampled at over 32 kHz and 12-bit resolution
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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