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Trending Papers in neuroscience

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204
From Paper: Robust prediction of individual creative ability from brain functional connectivity
Published: Jan 2018
From Paper: Robust prediction of individual creative ability from brain functional connectivity
Published: Jan 2018
  • The authors hypothesize that individual variation in the ability to simultaneously engage the default, executive, and salience brain systems may provide a neurophysiological marker of creative thinking ability
  • This analysis revealed 224 edges that positively correlated with creative ability (“high-creative network”) and 603 edges that negatively correlated with creative ability (“low-creative network”; total possible edges = 35,778)
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Patrick Joyce
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Patrick Joyce
213
From Paper: Restoring metabolism of myeloid cells reverses cognitive decline in ageing
Published: Jan 2021
From Paper: Restoring metabolism of myeloid cells reverses cognitive decline in ageing
Published: Jan 2021
  • This study shows that in aging mice myeloid cell bioenergetics are suppressed in response to increased signaling by the lipid messenger prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major modulator of inflammation
  • Systemically circulating pro-inflammatory factors can promote cognitive decline
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Patrick Joyce
116
Authors: Matan Fintz, Margarita Osadchy, Uri Hertz
Published: Jan 2021
Authors: Matan Fintz, Margarita Osadchy, Uri Hertz
Published: Jan 2021
  • Even though both the reward-oblivious and the reward-oriented model are less accurate than the general model in predicting human behaviour during periods of considerable uncertainty, they capture different aspects of human behaviour that jointly constitute the policy learned by the general model.
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Titus Osikhiana Ogahbrai
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Titus Osikhiana Ogahbrai
207
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most dangerous complication of oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT).
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Chukwuma Chidera
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Chukwuma Chidera
19
Authors: Quentin J. M. Huys, Tiago V. Maia, Michael J. Frank
Published: Mar 2016
Authors: Quentin J. M. Huys, Tiago V. Maia, Michael J. Frank
Published: Mar 2016
The complexity of problems and data in psychiatry requires powerful computational approaches. Computational psychiatry is an emerging field encompassing mechanistic theory-driven models and theoretically agnostic data-driven analyses that use machine-learning techniques. Clinical applications will benefit from relating theoretically meaningful process variables to complex psychiatric outcomes through data-driven techniques.
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Sebastian Hunte
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Sebastian Hunte
1
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Precious Morgans
1
Authors: Tomoyasu Horikawa, Yukiyasu Kamitani
Published: Dec 2020
Authors: Tomoyasu Horikawa, Yukiyasu Kamitani
Published: Dec 2020
Visual image reconstruction from brain activity produces images whose features are consistent with the neural representations in the visual cortex given arbitrary visual instances [1–3], presumably reflecting the person’s visual experience. Previous reconstruction studies have been concerned either with how stimulus images are faithfully reconstructed or with whether mentally imagined contents can be reconstructed in the absence of external stimuli. However, many lines of vision research have demonstrated that even stimulus perception is shaped both by stimulus-induced processes and top-down processes. In particular, attention (or the lack of it) is known to profoundly affect visual experience [4–8] and brain activity [9–21]. Here, to investigate how top-down attention impacts the neural representation of visual images and the reconstructions, we use a state-of-the-art method (deep image reconstruction [3]) to reconstruct visual images from fMRI activity measured while subjects attend to one of two images superimposed with equally weighted contrasts. Deep image reconstruction exploits the hierarchical correspondence between the brain and a deep neural network (DNN) to translate (decode) brain activity into DNN features of multiple layers, and then create images that are consistent with the decoded DNN features [3, 22, 23]. Using the deep image reconstruction model trained on fMRI responses to single natural images, we decode brain activity during the attention trials. Behavioral evaluations show that the reconstructions resemble the attended rather than the unattended images. The reconstructions can be modeled by superimposed images with contrasts biased to the attended one, which are comparable to the appearance of the stimuli under attention measured in a separate session. Attentional modulations are found in a broad range of hierarchical visual representations and mirror the brain–DNN correspondence. Our results demonstrate that top-down attention counters stimulus-induced responses and modulate neural representations to render reconstructions in accordance with subjective appearance. The reconstructions appear to reflect the content of visual experience and volitional control, opening a new possibility of brain-based communication and creation.
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Precious Morgans
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Precious Morgans
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Authors: Artur Czeszumski, Friederike Albers, Sven Walter, Peter König
Published: Dec 2020
Authors: Artur Czeszumski, Friederike Albers, Sven Walter, Peter König
Published: Dec 2020
The embodied approach of human cognition suggests that concepts are deeply dependent upon and constrained by an agent’s physical body’s characteristics, such as performed body movements. In this study, we attempted to broaden previous research on emotional priming, investigating the interaction of emotions and visual exploration. We used the joystick-based approach-avoidance task to influence the emotional states of participants, and subsequently, we presented pictures of news web pages on a computer screen and measured participant’s eye movements. As a result, the number of fixations on images increased, the total dwell time increased, and the average saccade length from outside of the images towards the images decreased after the bodily congruent priming phase. The combination of these effects suggests increased attention to web pages’ image content after the participants performed bodily congruent actions in the priming phase. Thus, congruent bodily interaction with images in the priming phase fosters visual interaction in the subsequent exploration phase.
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Precious Morgans
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Authors: Aurélie Fékété, Norbert Ankri, Romain Brette, Dominique Debanne
Published: Dec 2020
Authors: Aurélie Fékété, Norbert Ankri, Romain Brette, Dominique Debanne
Published: Dec 2020
The position of the axon initial segment (AIS) is thought to play a critical role in neuronal excitability. In particular, empirical studies have found correlations between a distal shift in AIS position and a reduction of excitability. Yet, theoretical work has suggested that the neuron should become more excitable as the distance between soma and AIS is increased, because of increased electrical isolation. Specifically, resistive coupling theory predicts that the action potential (AP) threshold decreases with the logarithm of the axial resistance (R ) between the middle of the AIS and the soma. However, no direct experimental evidence has been provided so far to support this theoretical prediction. We therefore examined how changes in R at the axon hillock impact the voltage threshold (V ) of the somatic AP in L5 pyramidal neurons. Increasing R by mechanically pinching the axon between the soma and the AIS was found to lower the spike threshold by ~6 mV. Conversely, decreasing R by replacing a weakly mobile ion (gluconate) by a highly mobile ion (chloride) elevated the spike threshold. All R -dependent changes in spike threshold could be reproduced in a Hodgkin-Huxley compartmental model. We conclude that in L5 pyramidal neurons, excitability increases with axial resistance, and therefore with a distal shift of the AIS.
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Precious Morgans
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Authors: Ludivine Pidoux, Kevin Delanoe, Eric Lingueglia, Emmanuel Deval
Published: Dec 2020
Authors: Ludivine Pidoux, Kevin Delanoe, Eric Lingueglia, Emmanuel Deval
Published: Dec 2020
Lysophosphatidyl-choline (LPC), a member of the phospholipid family, has recently emerged as an interesting new player in pain. It has been proposed to mediate pain through Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3 (ASIC3), a pain-related channel mainly expressed in peripheral sensory neurons. LPC potentiates ASIC3 current evoked by mild acidifications, but can also activate the channel at physiological pH, and its local injection in rodents evokes ASIC3-dependent pain. We combine here recordings of spinal cord neuron activity with subcutaneous LPC injection to analyze the mechanism of action associated with the LPC-induced, ASIC3-dependent pain in peripheral and spinal cord neurons. We show that a single cutaneous injection of LPC exclusively affects the nociceptive pathway. It evokes an ASIC3-dependent short-term sensitization of nociceptive fibers that drives hyperexcitability of projecting neurons within the dorsal spinal cord without apparent central sensitization.
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