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Trending Papers in nutrition

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Today
1
"Female infertility: which role for obesity?"
From Paper: Female infertility: which role for obesity?
Published: Apr 2019
  • Weight loss is able to restore fertility in most cases, but there are no practical indications to guide the clinician to choice the best method among increased physical activity, diet, drugs, and bariatric surgery.
Emeka A. Ezewudo
9
Intermittent fasting improves cognitive function in older adults
From Paper: Intermittent Fasting Enhanced the Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment by Inducing Biochemical and Metabolic changes: A 3-Year Progressive Study
Published: Sep 2020
  • These findings suggest that IF could be a solution to help combat the cognitive impairment that occurs during the aging process since IF is more applicable and easy to practice, especially among older adults and people under clinical intervention
  • The mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-afflicted older adults who practiced IF regularly had better cognitive scores and reverted to better cognitive function groups at 36 months follow-up
47
Consuming pistachios increases weight loss and reduces blood pressure
From Paper: Effects of Pistachio Consumption in a Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention on Weight Change, Cardiometabolic Factors, and Dietary Intake
Published: Jul 2020
  • Regular pistachio consumption was associated with several shifts in dietary intake and food choices compared to controls, including increased dietary fiber and decreased consumption of sweets
  • Regular consumption of pistachios was associated with a comparable degree of weight loss, and similar and significant reductions in BMI and waist circumference, in overweight/obese men and women in a behavioral weight loss intervention compared to controls who received only general dietary guidance
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Will McBurnie
184
Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels this century will lower the carotenoid concentrations essential to human health in crops and wild plants
From Paper: Rising Atmospheric CO2 Lowers Concentrations of Plant Carotenoids Essential to Human Health: A Meta-Analysis
Published: Jan 2019
  • Rising Atmospheric CO2 Lowers Concentrations of Plant Carotenoids Essential to Human Health: A Meta‐Analysis
  • In addition, this research analyzed genomic data from a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to find that elevated CO2 in the atmosphere suppresses carotenoid biosynthesis in leaves
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7
Association of egg intake with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in 177,000 people in 50 countries
From Paper: Sign in to EndNote Click
Background: Eggs are a rich source of essential nutrients, but they are also a source of dietary cholesterol. Therefore, some guidelines recommend limiting egg consumption. However, there is contradictory evidence on the impact of eggs on diseases, largely based on studies conducted in high-income countries.Objectives: Our aim was to assess the association of egg consumption with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality in large global studies involving populations from low-, middle-, and high-income countries.Methods: We studied 146,011 individuals from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Egg consumption was recorded using country-specific validated FFQs. We also studied 31,544 patients with vascular disease in 2 multinational prospective studies: ONTARGET (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global End Point Trial) and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACEI Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease). We calculated HRs using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering by study center separately within each study.Results: In the PURE study, we recorded 14,700 composite events (8932 deaths and 8477 CVD events). In the PURE study, after excluding those with history of CVD, higher intake of egg (≥7 egg/wk compared with <1 egg/wk intake) was not significantly associated with blood lipids, composite outcome (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.04; P-trend = 0.74), total mortality (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.15; P-trend = 0.38), or major CVD (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.01; P-trend = 0.20). Similar results were observed in ONTARGET/TRANSCEND studies for composite outcome (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.25; P-trend = 0.09), total mortality (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55), and major CVD (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.29; P-trend = 0.12).Conclusions: In 3 large international prospective studies including ∼177,000 individuals, 12,701 deaths, and 13,658 CVD events from 50 countries in 6 continents, we did not find significant associations between egg intake and blood lipids, mortality, or major CVD events. The ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00153101. The PURE trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03225586.go
Kayla Burris
14
Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases
Published: Apr 2018
  • Oxidative stress results from the imbalance between RONS production and antioxidants defence and is primarily involved in “aging theory”. Oxidative stress is also related to several chronic diseases and, together with chronic inflammation, to sarcopenia and frailty in elderly population. Biomarkers of oxidative stress may be useful as diagnostic tool or therapeutic target. Antioxidant therapy, and other nutritional compounds, together with moderate aerobic exercise, may positively affect the clinical damage induced by oxidative stress.
  • Selenium - Many of the physiological roles of the element selenium (Se) are directly attributed to its presence within at least 25 proteins, named selenoproteins, collectively essential for life and also involved in oxidative stress control. Several selenoproteins have been characterized as antioxidant enzymes,
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10
A ketogenic diet helps to protect older mice from the age-induced risk of COVID
From Paper: Ketogenesis restrains aging-induced exacerbation of COVID in a mouse model
Authors:
Ryu, Seungjin, et al
Published: Sep 2020
  • The increased severity of infection in aged animals involved increased inflammasome activation and loss of {gamma}{delta} T cells that was corrected by ketogenic diet
  • This study developed a model of natural murine beta coronavirus infection with mouse hepatitis virus strain MHV-A59 that recapitulated the majority of clinical hallmarks of COVID-19 - then explored how a ketogenic diet influenced the progression of this mouse COVID-19 model
8
Extensive weight loss reduces both immune and biological age
From Paper: Extensive weight loss can reduce immune age by altering IgG N-glycosylation
Published: Sep 2020
  • The IgG glycan profile that resulted from bariatric surgery is associated with younger biological age and reflects an enhanced anti-inflammatory IgG potential
  • Bariatric surgery resulted in extensive alterations of the IgG glycome that accompanied progressive weight loss during a one-year follow-up
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5
Fasting and refeeding differentially regulate inflammation activation in human subjects
From Paper: Fasting and refeeding differentially regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human subjects
BACKGROUND. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is associated with metabolic dysfunction, and intermittent fasting has been shown to improve clinical presentation of NLRP3 inflammasome–linked diseases. As mitochondrial perturbations, which function as a damage-associated molecular pattern, exacerbate NLRP3 inflammasome activation, we investigated whether fasting blunts inflammasome activation via sirtuin-mediated augmentation of mitochondrial integrity.METHODS. We performed a clinical study of 19 healthy volunteers. Each subject underwent a 24-hour fast and then was fed a fixed-calorie meal. Blood was drawn during the fasted and fed states and analyzed for NRLP3 inflammasome activation. We enrolled an additional group of 8 healthy volunteers to assess the effects of the sirtuin activator, nicotinamide riboside, on NLRP3 inflammasome activation.RESULTS. In the fasting/refeeding study, individuals showed less NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the fasted state compared with that in refed conditions. In a human macrophage line, depletion of the mitochondrial-enriched sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3 increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in association with excessive mitochondrial ROS production. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacologic SIRT3 activation blunted NLRP3 activity in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial function in cultured cells and in leukocytes extracted from healthy volunteers and from refed individuals but not in those collected during fasting.CONCLUSIONS. Together, our data indicate that nutrient levels regulate the NLRP3 inflammasome, in part through SIRT3-mediated mitochondrial homeostatic control. Moreover, these results suggest that deacetylase-dependent inflammasome attenuation may be amenable to targeting in human disease.TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02122575 and NCT00442195.FUNDING. Division of Intramural Research, NHLBI of the NIH.
Kayla Burris
8
Green tea extract effectively reduces LDL in overweight and obese women
From Paper: Effects of green tea extract on overweight and obese women with high levels of low density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C): a randomised, double-blind, and cross-over placebo-controlled clinical trial
Published: Nov 2018
Background: This study aims to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE) supplement on overweight and obese women with high levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C).Methods: The randomized, double-blind, crossover and placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013. Seventy-three out of 90 subjects aged between 18 and 65 years, with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m2 and LDL-C ≥ 130 mg/dl were included in the analysis. The subjects were randomly divided into Groups A and B. Group A received GTE supplement treatment for the first 6 weeks, while Group B received placebo daily. After 6 weeks of treatment and 14 days of washout period, Group A switched to placebo and Group B switched to GTE treatment for 6 weeks. The reduction of LDL-C level between treatments was assessed as the outcome. Additionally, anthropometric measurements, plasma lipoproteins and hormone peptides of both groups were measure at the beginning of weeks 6, 8, and 14 after treatment.Results: Subjects treated with GTE (n = 73) for 6 weeks showed significant differences, with 4.8% (p = 0.048) reduction in LDL-C and 25.7% (p = 0.046) increase in leptin. However, there was no statistical difference in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein between the GTE and placebo groups after treatments.Conclusions: This study shows that green tea extract effectively increases leptin and reduces LDL in overweight and obese women after 6 weeks of treatment even though there were no significant changes in other biochemical markers related to overweight.