Kombucha tea is a refreshing beverage that is produced from the fermentation of tea leaves. In this study, kombucha tea was prepared using 1% green tea, oolong tea, and black tea, and 10% sucrose with acetic acid bacteria and yeast. The pH values of the kombucha tea were found to be in a range of 2.70–2.94 at 15 days of fermentation. The lowest pH value of 2.70 was recorded in the kombucha prepared from black tea. The total acidity of kombucha prepared from black tea was the highest by 16.75 g/L and it was still maintained after heat treatment by boiling and after autoclaved. Six organic acids: glucuronic, gluconic, D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone, ascorbic, acetic, and succinic acid in kombucha tea were detected by HPLC with the optimization for organic acids detection using isocratic elution buffer with C18 conventional column. The highest level of organic acid was gluconic acid. Kombucha prepared from green tea revealed the highest phenolic content and antioxidation against DPPH radicals by 1.248 and 2.642 mg gallic acid/mL kombucha, respectively. Moreover, pathogenic enteric bacteria: Escherichia coli. E. coli O157:H7. Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholera were inhibited by kombucha and heat-denatured kombucha with diameter of the inhibition zones ranged from 15.0 ± 0.0–25.0 ± 0.0 mm. In addition, kombucha prepared from green tea and black tea demonstrated toxicity on Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, kombucha tea could be considered as a potential source of the antioxidation, inhibition of pathogenic enteric bacteria, and toxicity on colorectal cancer cells.
Objective: To assess models of care and conduct a meta-analysis of program outcomes for children receiving intensive, multidisciplinary intervention for pediatric feeding disorders.
Study design: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases (2000-2015) in peer-reviewed journals for studies that examined the treatment of children with chronic food refusal receiving intervention at day treatment or inpatient hospital programs. Inclusion criteria required the presentation of quantitative data on food consumption, feeding behavior, and/or growth status before and after intervention. Effect size estimates were calculated based
on a meta-analysis of proportions.
Results: The systematic search yielded 11 studies involving 593 patients. Nine articles presented outcomes based on retrospective (nonrandomized) chart reviews; 2 studies involved randomized controlled trials. All samples involved children with complex medical and/or developmental histories who displayed persistent feeding concerns requiring formula supplementation. Behavioral intervention and tube weaning represented the most common treatment approaches. Core disciplines overseeing care included psychology, nutrition, medicine, and speech-language pathology/occupational therapy. The overall effect size for percentage of patients successfully weaned from tube feeding was 71% (95% CI 54%-83%). Treatment gains endured following discharge, with 80% of patients (95% CI 66%-89%) weaned from tube feeding at last follow-up. Treatment also was associated with increased oral intake, improved mealtime behaviors, and reduced parenting stress.
Conclusions: Results indicate intensive, multidisciplinary treatment holds benefits for children with severe feeding difficulties. Future research must address key methodological limitations to the extant literature, including improved measurement, more comprehensive case definitions, and standardization/examination of treatment approach.
(J Pediatr 2017;181:116-24).
Anti-obesity efforts that rely on stigmatizing weight (eg, using harsh language or stereotypical portrayals of overweight individuals) may impede health promotion efforts, as weight stigma is often negatively related to behavior change and thus seems unlikely to result in weight loss.1 Indeed, considerable research underscores the detrimental effects of weight stigma on the physical health and well-being of children and adolescents,2 and nationally representative, longitudinal data show weight-based discrimination is associated with weight gain among older individuals.3 Although the childhood weight stigma literature frequently examines overt and often malicious behaviors (eg, bullying), stigma processes can begin when an individual experiences weight labeling.4 By labeling someone as overweight, the negative stereotypes, status loss, and mistreatment associated with this label may now be applicable to the individual. Recent research suggests that the negative psychological effects of weight stigma can begin when one is simply labeled as “too fat” by others.5 However, the relationship between weight labeling and weight gain remains unknown. Thus, we examined if weight labeling during childhood was related to the likelihood of having an obese body mass index (BMI) nearly a decade later.
Hydnellum peckii is a fungus with anticoagulant properties. Since early reports of COVID patients presented with high venous thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation, Hydnellum peckii is viable treatment solution of COVID -19
Several approaches to manipulate the gut microbiome for improving the activity of cancer immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are currently under evaluation. Here, we show that oral supplementation with the polyphenol-rich berry camu-camu (CC, Myrciaria dubia) in mice shifted gut microbial composition, which translated into antitumor activity and a stronger anti-PD-1 response. We identified castalagin, an ellagitannin, as the active compound in CC. Oral administration of castalagin enriched for bacteria associated with efficient immunotherapeutic responses (Ruminococcaceae and Alistipes) and improved the CD8+/Foxp3+CD4+ ratio within the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, castalagin induced metabolic changes, resulting in an increase in taurine conjugated bile acids. Oral supplementation of castalagin following fecal microbiota transplantation from ICI-refractory patients into mice supported anti-PD-1 activity. Finally, we found that castalagin binds to Ruminococcus bromii and promoted an anticancer response. Altogether, our results identify castalagin as a polyphenol that acts as a prebiotic to circumvent anti-PD-1 resistance.
Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health.
Propolis is a bee wax rich in various phytocomponents and traditionally used to treat various ailments. Propolis is reported to possess an array of biological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic as well as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, Reno protective, and derma protective activities. A plethora of studies confirmed that propolis is effective against various types of cancer including head and neck, lung, liver, brain (glioma), pancreas, kidney, prostate, skin (melanoma), breast, oral, esophagus, gastric, colorectal, and bladder cancers. However, many researchers have demonstrated that propolis displays potent chemoprotective/chemo preventive or anti-cancer activity against only a few types of cancers like oral, gastrointestinal, dermal (melanoma), breast, and prostate cancers. Therefore, this mini-review only summarizes the chemo preventive/chemotherapeutic activities of propolis and its updated underlying mechanisms. Taken together, propolis displays potent chemoprotective or anti-cancer effect due to the presence of various phytocomponents which contribute to pro-apoptotic, cytotoxic, anti-proliferative (cell cycle arrest), anti-metastatic, anti-invasive, anti-angiogenic and anti-genotoxic or anti-mutagenic properties along with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory functions. Hence, propolis could be used as an adjuvant for treating various cancers along with standard chemotherapeutic drugs. However, many large-scale clinical studies are needed to justify such applications.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium via the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The inadequate production of NO has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP) in both human and animal studies, and might be due to substrate inaccessibility. This review aimed to investigate whether oral administration of the amino acids l-arginine (Arg) and l-citrulline (Cit), which are potential substrates for eNOS, could effectively reduce BP by increasing NO production. Both Arg and Cit are effective at increasing plasma Arg. Cit is approximately twice as potent, which is most likely due to a lower first-pass metabolism. The current data suggest that oral Arg supplementation can lower BP by 5.39/2.66 mmHg, which is an effect that is comparable with diet changes and exercise implementation. The antihypertensive properties of Cit are more questionable, but are likely in the range of 4.1/2.08 to 7.54/3.77 mmHg. The exact mechanism by which Cit and Arg exert their effect is not fully understood, as normal plasma Arg concentration greatly exceeds the Michaelis constant (Km) of eNOS. Thus, elevated plasma Arg concentrations would not be expected to increase endogenous NO production significantly, but have nonetheless been observed in other studies. This phenomenon is known as the "l-arginine paradox".
Objective: To compare the long-term risk of epilepsy in stroke patients who use Bu Yang Huan Wu Tang (BYHWT) and those who do not. Methods: In the Taiwanese national insurance claims data, we identified newly diagnosed stroke patients receiving inpatient care in the years 2000–2004. Using propensity score-matched pairs to balance the baseline characteristics, we selected eligible stroke patients who did (n=8,971) and did not (n=8,971) receive BYHWT. These two groups were followed up until the end of 2009 to track the occurrence of epilepsy. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate the adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for post-stroke epilepsy during the follow-up period according to BYHWT use. Results: Compared with the control group, stroke patients with BYHWT had a reduced risk of epilepsy during the 5–9 years of the follow-up period (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.61–0.77). The association between BYHWT and reduced post-stroke epilepsy was significant in various subgroups of stroke patients. There was a dose-dependent decrease in the frequency of epilepsy with increasing quantities of BYHWT use from 1 package (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.66–0.90) to ≥6 packages (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.42–0.65). Conclusion: Stroke patients who received BYHWT therapy had a reduced long-term risk of epilepsy, and the beneficial effect could be observed in various subgroups. However, future clinical trials will be necessary to corroborate the present findings and identify the biochemical mechanism involved.
Context: Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss: Fr) Karst. (Polyporaceae) is an oriental medicinal fungus, commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating various condition or diseases such as hypertension, hyper glycaemia, hepatitis and cancer. Objective: The current study examines whether triterpenoids and polysaccharide-enriched G. lucidum (GL) influence antioxidation and hepatoprotective efficacy by suppressing oxidative stress. Materials and methods: Forty-two healthy subjects (22 male and 20 female) were recruited and segregated into two groups as experimental or placebo and requested to intake GL (n ¼ 21) or placebo (n ¼ 21) capsule (225 mg; after lunch or dinner) for six consecutive months and vice versa with one month washout period in between. The anthropometric analysis and biochemical assays, as well as abdominal ultrasonic examination were performed. Results: Consumption of GL substantially improved (p < 0.05) the total antioxidant capacity (TEAC; 79.33–84.04), total thiols and glutathione content (6–8.05) in plasma as well as significant (p < 0.05) enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Whereas, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 3.37–2.47), 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine (8-OH-dG; 15.99–11.98) and hepatic marker enzymes (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase; GOT and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase; GPT) were concomitantly reduced (42 and 27%) on treatment with GL. Furthermore, the abdominal ultrasonic examination in GL subjects displayed a notable alteration on hepatic condition by reversing from mild fatty liver condition (initial) to normal condition. Discussion and Conclusion: The outcome of the present intervention demonstrated the antioxidation, anti-aging and hepatoprotective nature of GL by effectively curbing oxidative stress