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Trending Papers in pathology

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Today
6
Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower levels of a marker for Alzheimer's Disease
From Paper: Association of moderate alcohol intake with in vivo amyloid-beta deposition in human brain: A cross-sectional study
Authors:
Kim, Jee Wook, et al
Published: Feb 2020
  • The results showed that moderate lifetime alcohol intake (i.e., 1–13 standard drinks [SDs]/week) was significantly associated with lower amyloid deposition compared to no drinking
  • This study is a cross-sectional analyses of the baseline data from 414 individuals who participated in the Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer’s Disease (KBASE), an ongoing prospective cohort study
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
3
A lipid biomarker can help predict risk of hearing-loss in Alzheimers patients
From Paper: Hearing loss in Alzheimer Disease is associated with altered serum lipidomic biomarker profiles
  • The results suggest a potential role for phosphatidylcholine in the underlying pathophysiology of age-related hearing loss in the context of AD
  • This paper investigates the distribution of serum lipidomic biomarkers in AD subjects with or without hearing loss in a publicly available dataset
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Slide 1 of 1
26
Evolution of the protein CD44 is partly responsible for why humans are more susceptible to cancer than other mammals
From Paper: Human vulnerability to cancer malignancy is enhanced by evolution of higher mesenchymal CD44 expression compared to other mammals
  • This study explores the evolution of CD44 expression in therian mammals in both SF as well as ESF and demonstrates that the human lineage has experienced a concerted evolutionary enhancement of CD44 expression, correlating with an increase in human vulnerability to cancer malignancy.
  • The results suggest that therapeutic modulation of CD44 expression in skin fibroblasts could attenuate the cancer-promoting effect of cancer associated fibroblasts with minimal side effects on other cell types.
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Slide 1 of 1
9
Severe SAR-CoV-2 infection in humans is defined by a shift in the serum lipidome resulting in dysregulation of eicosanoid immune mediators
  • Specifically, the loss of the immune regulatory prostaglandins and the increased production of AA-derived products of ALOX5 and cytochrome P450 provides both a measure of disease severity
  • Due to the critical role circulating fats play in regulating the immune system, this paper provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Slide 1 of 1
4
Neural "organoids" created from stem cells can be used as a traumatic brain injury model that helps scientists gain a better understanding of how physical trauma affects the human brain
From Paper: A model of traumatic brain injury using human iPSC-derived cortical brain organoids
  • The results show that mechanically injured organoids recapitulate key hallmarks of traumatic brain injury, phosphorylation of tau and TDP-43, neurodegeneration, and transcriptional programs indicative of energy deficits
  • The model described in this study could be an effective tool to learn more about TBIs and potential clinical therapeutics to treat disease
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Slide 1 of 1
4
Understanding Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors- regulated cellular and molecular Mechanisms of Chronic Kidney Diseases
Published: May 2020
Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) are an economic burden and occur worldwide in all age groups, and the advancement of kidney disease at some point leads to deregulate or influence the function of other body organs and to find a specific target to halt the disease progression which is a tedious challenge. Regardless of the underlying mechanisms, it is essential to consider and evaluate the involvement and association of individual endogenous mediators and environmental factors in the progression of CKD to accumulate the required knowledge. More than a dozen pathways leading to relentless progression of CKD have been identified so far, but the association of serotonin 5-HT2A receptor with progressive renal injury is still under process.Scientific reports demonstrated that the 5-HT2A receptor plays a significant role in renal metabolism, glomerular function, and renal vascular tone. So a better understanding of the evolving role of serotonin 5-HT2A-mediated pathophysiological mechanisms of CKD may be a helpful tool to identify new therapeutic targets. In this review, we will discuss recent interventions, pharmacological target, and the possible implication of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors with associated mechanistic trails leading to CKD.
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Slide 1 of 1
7
Autopsy data shows that the lungs of deceased severe COVID-19 patients weigh 2.5x normal. The authors propose a pathogenic mechanism for COVID-19 that involves over-activation of mast cells
From Paper: Accelerated hyaluronan concentration as the primary driver of morbidity and mortality in high-risk COVID-19 patients: with therapeutic introduction of an oral hyaluronan inhibitor in the prevention of "Induced Hyaluronan Storm" Syndrome
  • The average lung weight was 2.5x normal, with thick hyaline membranes. The authors then reviewed the potential involvement of "hyaluronan storm syndrome" in the pathogenesis of COVID-19
  • The authors reviewed autopsy data from 181 patients who died with severe COVID-19 and selected 6 cases to review in-depth.
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Slide 1 of 1
0
Diabetic Retinopathy detection through integration of Deep Learning classification framework
Author:
Alexander Rakhlin
Published: Nov 2017
This document represents a brief account of ongoing project for Diabetic Retinopathy Detection (DRD) through integration of state-of the art Deep Learning methods. We make use of deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which have proven revolutionary in multiple fields of computer vision including medical imaging, and we bring their power to the diagnosis of eye fundus images. For training our models we used publicly available Kaggle data set. For testing we used portion of Kaggle data withheld from training and Messidor-2 reference standard. Neither withheld Kaggle images, nor Messidor-2 were used for training. For Messidor-2 we achieved sensitivity 99%, specificity 71%, and AUC 0.97. These results close to recent state-of-the-art models trained on much larger data sets and surpass average results of diabetic retinopathy screening when performed by trained optometrists. With continuous development of our Deep Learning models we expect to further increase the accuracy of the method and expand it to cataract and glaucoma diagnostics.
Retrieved from biorxiv
0
High multiplex, digital spatial profiling of proteins and RNA in fixed tissue using genomic detection methods
Authors:
Merritt, Christopher, et al
Published: Feb 2019
We have developed Digital Spatial Profiling (DSP), a non-destructive method for high-plex spatial profiling of proteins and RNA, using oligonucleotide detection technologies with unlimited multiplexing capability. The key breakthroughs underlying DSP are threefold: (1) multiplexed readout of proteins/RNA using oligo-tags; (2) oligo-tags attached to affinity reagents (antibodies/RNA probes) through a photocleavable (PC) linker; (3) photocleaving light projected onto the tissue sample to release PC-oligos in any spatial pattern. Here we show precise analyte reproducibility, validation, and cellular resolution using DSP. We also demonstrate biological proof-of-concept using lymphoid, colorectal tumor, and autoimmune tissue as models to profile immune cell populations, stroma, and cancer cells to identify factors specific for the diseased microenvironment. DSP utilizes the unlimited multiplexing capability of modern genomic approaches, while simultaneously providing spatial context of protein and RNA to examine biological questions based on analyte location and distribution.
Retrieved from biorxiv
0
Pangolin homology associated with 2019-nCoV
Authors:
Tao Zhang, Qunfu Wu, Zhigang Zhang
Published: Feb 2020
To explore potential intermediate host of a novel coronavirus is vital to rapidly control continuous COVID-19 spread. We found genomic and evolutionary evidences of the occurrence of 2019-nCoV-like coronavirus (named as Pangolin-CoV) from dead Malayan Pangolins. Pangolin-CoV is 91.02% and 90.55% identical at the whole genome level to 2019-nCoV and BatCoV RaTG13, respectively. Pangolin-CoV is the lowest common ancestor of 2019-nCoV and RaTG13. The S1 protein of Pangolin-CoV is much more closely related to 2019-nCoV than RaTG13. Five key amino-acid residues involved in the interaction with human ACE2 are completely consistent between Pangolin-CoV and 2019-nCoV but four amino-acid mutations occur in RaTG13. It indicates Pangolin-CoV has similar pathogenic potential to 2019-nCoV, and would be helpful to trace the origin and probable intermediate host of 2019-nCoV.
Retrieved from biorxiv
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