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Trending Papers in pharmacology-and-toxicology

Low to moderate alcohol drinking is associated with better cognition in older age than complete abstinence from alcohol
From Paper: Association of Low to Moderate Alcohol Drinking With Cognitive Functions From Middle to Older Age Among US Adults
Published: Jun 2020
  • Weekly alcohol consumption had U-shaped relationships with the cognitive functions assessed, with the strongest associations with better cognitive functions at a dosage of 10 to 14 drinks per week for all participants
  • Low to moderate drinking was associated with consistently high cognitive function trajectories. Cognitive test scores at the baseline middle-aged assessment were relatively high and remained high at each subsequent assessment. In addition, there was a decreased rate of cognitive decline with age for middle-aged or older US adults for low to moderate drinkers
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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How sex and gender influence the physiological effect of psychoactive drugs
From Paper: Sex and Gender Differences in the Effects of Novel Psychoactive Substances
Published: Sep 2020
  • This work collects the little knowledge reached so far on the effects of NPS in male and female animal and human subjects, highlighting how much sex and gender differences in the effects of NPS has yet to be studied and understood
  • Men are more likely than women to use almost all types of illicit drugs and to present to emergency departments for serious or fatal intoxications
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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A single dose of acetaminophen (Tylenol) will make a person more likely to take risks
From Paper: Effects of acetaminophen on risk taking
  • The results indicate that acetaminophen can increase risk-taking, which may be due to reductions in risk perceptions
  • This study tested the hypothesis that acute acetaminophen consumption (1000 mg) could influence important judgments and decisions concerning risk
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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Telomerase gene therapy prevents age-related fibrotic lung disease
From Paper: Telomerase treatment prevents lung profibrotic pathologies associated with physiological aging
Published: Oct 2020
  • The results demonstrate telomere shortening with age in the lungs of wild-type mice, reaching at old ages values similar to those of young G3 Tert−/− mice
  • Mice with a mutation in TERT (telomerase gene) and a control, mice without a TERT mutation, were both given telomerase gene therapy and then assessed for telomere shortening and lung fibrosis at various time points throughout their lives
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Microdosing LSD decreases the perception of pain in healthy volunteers to a similar extent as opioids prescribed for moderate to severe pain
From Paper: A low dose of lysergic acid diethylamide decreases pain perception in healthy volunteers
Published: Aug 2020
  • Changes in pain tolerance and subjective pain perception induced by LSD 20 µg were of medium to large effect size and comparable in magnitude to those observed with the CPT after administration of opioids, such as oxycodone 20 mg and morphine 10–20 mg to healthy volunteers
  • Separate LSD–placebo contrasts revealed that LSD 20 µg increased pain tolerance (p=0.006) and decreased painfulness (p=0.012) and unpleasantness (p=0.008)
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Topical rapamycin reduces markers of aging in human skin
From Paper: Topical rapamycin reduces markers of senescence and aging in human skin: an exploratory, prospective, randomized trial
Published: Nov 2019
Aging is a major risk factor for the majority of human diseases, and the development of interventions to reduce the intrinsic rate of aging is expected to reduce the risk for age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. In the skin, aging manifests itself in photodamage and dermal atrophy, with underlying tissue reduction and impaired barrier function. To determine whether rapamycin, an FDA-approved drug targeting the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex, can reduce senescence and markers of aging in human skin, an exploratory, placebo-controlled, interventional trial was conducted in a clinical dermatology setting. Participants were greater than 40 years of age with evidence of age-related photoaging and dermal volume loss and no major morbidities. Thirty-six participants were enrolled in the study, and nineteen discontinued or were lost to follow-up. A significant (P = 0.008) reduction in p16INK4A protein levels and an increase in collagen VII protein levels (P = 0.0077) were observed among participants at the end of the study. Clinical improvement in skin appearance was noted in multiple participants, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed improvement in histological appearance of skin tissue. Topical rapamycin reduced the expression of the p16INK4A protein consistent with a reduction in cellular senescence. This change was accompanied by relative improvement in clinical appearance of the skin and histological markers of aging and by an increase in collagen VII, which is critical to the integrity of the basement membrane. These results indicate that rapamycin treatment is a potential anti-aging therapy with efficacy in humans.
Submitted by Kayla Burris
Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety
Published: Feb 2007
Aging of skin is an intricate biological process consisting of two types. While intrinsic or chronological aging is an inevitable process, photoaging involves the premature aging of skin occurring due to cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Chronological and photoaging both have clinically differentiable manifestations. Various natural and synthetic retinoids have been explored for the treatment of aging and many of them have shown histological and clinical improvement, but most of the studies have been carried out in patients presenting with photoaged skin. Amongst the retinoids, tretinoin possibly is the most potent and certainly the most widely investigated retinoid for photoaging therapy. Although retinoids show promise in the treatment of skin aging, irritant reactions such as burning, scaling or dermatitis associated with retinoid therapy limit their acceptance by patients. This problem is more prominent with tretinoin and tazarotene whereas other retinoids mainly represented by retinaldehyde and retinol are considerably less irritating. In order to minimize these side effects, various novel drug delivery systems have been developed. In particular, nanoparticles have shown a good potential in improving the stability, tolerability and efficacy of retinoids like tretinoin and retinol. However, more elaborate clinical studies are required to confirm their advantage in the delivery of topical retinoids.
Submitted by Kayla Burris
Methamphetamine exposure enhances HIV replication in CD4+ T-Cells by increasing levels of pro-inflammatory signaling molecules
From Paper: Methamphetamine Enhances HIV-1 Replication in CD4+ T-Cells via a Novel IL-1β Auto-Regulatory Loop
Published: Feb 2020
  • The results indicate that methamphetamine activates an IL-1β feedback loop to alter innate immune pathways and favor HIV-1 replication
  • Enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), has been shown to be important for HIV-1 pathobiology
Submitted by Ida Rolf
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An fMRI study finds that an individual's emotional experience while on psilocybin can be predicted by the thickness of their rostral anterior cingulate cortex
From Paper: Rostral Anterior Cingulate Thickness Predicts the Emotional Psilocybin Experience
  • Cortical thickness of the caudal and posterior cingulate did not contribute to predictions of one's experience on psilocybin
  • Cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate could be used to predict an individual's experience of feelings of unity, bliss, spiritual experience, and insightfulness after psilocybin.
Submitted by Leena Hanni
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A systematic review/meta-analysis found that methadone, buprenorphine, and DAM are the most effective opioids for improving the mental health of patients with opioid-use disorder
From Paper: Impact of opioid agonists on mental health in substitution treatment for opioid use disorder: A systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
  • Based on network meta-analysis for primary outcomes, buprenorphine, DAM, and methadone were superior to waitlist/placebo on overall mental health
  • RCTs were included if they compared opioid agonists with each other or with placebo/waitlist in substitution treatment of patients with opioid use disorder, and reported at least one mental health outcome on a span of more than 1-month post-baseline
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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