Weekly alcohol consumption had U-shaped relationships with the cognitive functions assessed, with the strongest associations with better cognitive functions at a dosage of 10 to 14 drinks per week for all participants
Low to moderate drinking was associated with consistently high cognitive function trajectories. Cognitive test scores at the baseline middle-aged assessment were relatively high and remained high at each subsequent assessment. In addition, there was a decreased rate of cognitive decline with age for middle-aged or older US adults for low to moderate drinkers
This work collects the little knowledge reached so far on the effects of NPS in male and female animal and human subjects, highlighting how much sex and gender differences in the effects of NPS has yet to be studied and understood
Men are more likely than women to use almost all types of illicit drugs and to present to emergency departments for serious or fatal intoxications
The results demonstrate telomere shortening with age in the lungs of wild-type mice, reaching at old ages values similar to those of young G3 Tert−/− mice
Mice with a mutation in TERT (telomerase gene) and a control, mice without a TERT mutation, were both given telomerase gene therapy and then assessed for telomere shortening and lung fibrosis at various time points throughout their lives
Changes in pain tolerance and subjective pain perception induced by LSD 20 µg were of medium to large effect size and comparable in magnitude to those observed with the CPT after administration of opioids, such as oxycodone 20 mg and morphine 10–20 mg to healthy volunteers
Separate LSD–placebo contrasts revealed that LSD 20 µg increased pain tolerance (p=0.006) and decreased painfulness (p=0.012) and unpleasantness (p=0.008)
Aging is a major risk factor for the majority of human diseases, and the development of interventions to reduce the intrinsic rate of aging is expected to reduce the risk for age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. In the skin, aging manifests itself in photodamage and dermal atrophy, with underlying tissue reduction and impaired barrier function. To determine whether rapamycin, an FDA-approved drug targeting the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex, can reduce senescence and markers of aging in human skin, an exploratory, placebo-controlled, interventional trial was conducted in a clinical dermatology setting. Participants were greater than 40 years of age with evidence of age-related photoaging and dermal volume loss and no major morbidities. Thirty-six participants were enrolled in the study, and nineteen discontinued or were lost to follow-up. A significant (P = 0.008) reduction in p16INK4A protein levels and an increase in collagen VII protein levels (P = 0.0077) were observed among participants at the end of the study. Clinical improvement in skin appearance was noted in multiple participants, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed improvement in histological appearance of skin tissue. Topical rapamycin reduced the expression of the p16INK4A protein consistent with a reduction in cellular senescence. This change was accompanied by relative improvement in clinical appearance of the skin and histological markers of aging and by an increase in collagen VII, which is critical to the integrity of the basement membrane. These results indicate that rapamycin treatment is a potential anti-aging therapy with efficacy in humans.
Aging of skin is an intricate biological process consisting of two types. While intrinsic or chronological aging is an inevitable process, photoaging involves the premature aging of skin occurring due to cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Chronological and photoaging both have clinically differentiable manifestations. Various natural and synthetic retinoids have been explored for the treatment of aging and many of them have shown histological and clinical improvement, but most of the studies have been carried out in patients presenting with photoaged skin. Amongst the retinoids, tretinoin possibly is the most potent and certainly the most widely investigated retinoid for photoaging therapy. Although retinoids show promise in the treatment of skin aging, irritant reactions such as burning, scaling or dermatitis associated with retinoid therapy limit their acceptance by patients. This problem is more prominent with tretinoin and tazarotene whereas other retinoids mainly represented by retinaldehyde and retinol are considerably less irritating. In order to minimize these side effects, various novel drug delivery systems have been developed. In particular, nanoparticles have shown a good potential in improving the stability, tolerability and efficacy of retinoids like tretinoin and retinol. However, more elaborate clinical studies are required to confirm their advantage in the delivery of topical retinoids.
Based on network meta-analysis for primary outcomes, buprenorphine, DAM, and methadone were superior to waitlist/placebo on overall mental health
RCTs were included if they compared opioid agonists with each other or with placebo/waitlist in substitution treatment of patients with opioid use disorder, and reported at least one mental health outcome on a span of more than 1-month post-baseline