Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has led to more than 3 million deaths worldwide. Safe and effective vaccines are now available, including the mRNA-1273 prototype vaccine, which encodes for the Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein stabilized in the prefusion conformation by 2 proline substitutions. This vaccine showed 94% efficacy in prevention of symptomatic COVID-19 disease in a phase 3 clinical study. Recently, SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged, some of which have shown decreased susceptibility to neutralization by vaccine-induced antibody, most notably the B.1.351 variant, although the overall impact on vaccine efficacy remains to be determined. In addition, recent evidence of waning antibody levels after infection or vaccination point to the need for periodic boosting of immunity. Here we present the preliminary evaluation of a clinical study on the use of the prototype mRNA-1273 or modified COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, designed to target emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants as booster vaccines in participants previously vaccinated approximately 6 months earlier with two doses of the prototype vaccine, mRNA-1273. The modified vaccines include a monovalent mRNA-1273.351 encoding for the S protein found in the B.1.351 variant and multivalent mRNA-1273.211 comprising a 1:1 mix of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. As single 50 μg booster vaccinations, both mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351 had acceptable safety profiles and were immunogenic. Antibody neutralization titers against B.1.351 and P.1 variants measured by SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization (PsVN) assays before the booster vaccinations, approximately 6 to 8 months after the primary series, were low or below the assay limit of quantification, although GMTs versus the wild-type strain remained above levels likely to be protective. Two weeks after the booster vaccinations, titers against the wild-type original strain, B.1.351, and P.1 variants increased to levels similar to or higher than peak titers after the primary series vaccinations. Although both mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351 boosted neutralization of the wild-type original strain, and B.1.351 and P.1 variants, mRNA-1273.351 appeared to be more effective at increasing neutralization of the B.1.351 virus versus a boost with mRNA-1273. The vaccine trial is ongoing and boosting of clinical trial participants with the multivalent mRNA-1273.211 is currently being evaluated.