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Trending Papers in physiology

Damaged muscle fibers produce signaling molecules that initiate muscle regeneration
From Paper: Damaged Myofiber-Derived Metabolic Enzymes Act as Activators of Muscle Satellite Cells
Published: Sep 2020
  • The results revealed that quiescent satellite cells associated with myofibers could be activated by factors leaked from damaged myofibers that promote activation and proliferation in coordination with mitogens during muscle regeneration
  • To determine whether activated satellite cells are reversible to the quiescent-like state without cell division, individual muscle fibers were freshly isolated cultured with or without damaged myofibers for 48 hours
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Predicting and understanding the differences in commonly used approaches for recording neuronal activity.
From Paper: A comparison of neuronal population dynamics measured with calcium imaging and electrophysiology
Published: Sep 2020
  • A comparative analysis between 'ephys' and calcium imaging data collected from a decision-making task in the frontal cortex show qualitative discrepancies at both the level of single cells and neural populations. Though, a new phenomenological model of the spike-to-fluorescence transformation helps explain many of the differences.
  • Electrophysiological recordings ('ephys') report spiking of neurons with high signal-to-noise ratio, temporal fidelity, and dynamic range, but typically offers access only to a sparse subset of relatively active neurons.
Submitted by Cullyn Newman
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Increased expression of TMPRSS2 in the upper respiratory tract may help explain why the incidence of COVID-19 among African-Americans is 2-3x the U.S. average
From Paper: Racial/Ethnic Variation in Nasal Gene Expression of Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2)
Published: Sep 2020
  • Given the essential role of TMPRSS2 in SARS-CoV-2 entry, higher nasal expression of TMPRSS2 may contribute to the higher burden of COVID-19 among Black individuals
  • TMPRSS2 expression was significantly higher in Black individuals compared with Asian, Latino, mixed race/ethnicity, and White individuals
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
How sex and gender influence the physiological effect of psychoactive drugs
From Paper: Sex and Gender Differences in the Effects of Novel Psychoactive Substances
Published: Sep 2020
  • This work collects the little knowledge reached so far on the effects of NPS in male and female animal and human subjects, highlighting how much sex and gender differences in the effects of NPS has yet to be studied and understood
  • Men are more likely than women to use almost all types of illicit drugs and to present to emergency departments for serious or fatal intoxications
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Vagus nerve stimulation through the skin results in pupil dilation and a reduction in brain waves associated with focused attention
From Paper: Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in humans induces pupil dilation and attenuates alpha oscillations
Published: Aug 2020
  • tVNS and sham stimulation did not differ in subjective intensity ratings, transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) led to robust pupil dilation that was significantly higher than following sham stimulation
  • tVNS attenuates alpha oscillations to a greater extent than does sham stimulation
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Blood flow restriction decreases the skeletal muscle loss associated with prolonged inactivity
From Paper: Effects of blood flow restriction on muscle size and gene expression in muscle during immobilization: A pilot study
Published: Jul 2020
  • The results indicate that BFR has a preventive effect on the decrease of cross-sectional area in skeletal muscle induced by cast immobilization
  • This study explored the effect of blood flow restriction on gene expression and skeletal muscle loss experienced by patients immobilized by casts
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Oxytocin's ability to reduce the perception of a threat is mediated by serotonin signaling
From Paper: Oxytocinergic modulation of threat-specific amygdala sensitization in humans is critically mediated by serotonergic mechanisms
Liu, Congcong, et al
Published: May 2020
  • The results provide the first evidence for the role of oxytocin in threat-specific amygdala desensitization in humans and suggest that these effects are critically mediated by the serotonin system
  • No treatment main or interaction effects on amygdala threat reactivity were observed, yet oxytocin switched bilateral superficial amygdala sensitization to desensitization and this effect was significantly attenuated during decreased central serotonin signaling via pretreatment with ATD
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Physical Activity Is Associated With Better Executive Function in University Students
Published: Feb 2020
  • The findings suggest that the practice of PA might improve aspects of executive function such as the ability to inhibit stimuli that trigger automatic responses, cognitive control ability, and mental flexibility in university students
  • binge drinking was associated with worse executive function in this same population, and this effect was stronger in women, which is exactly the reverse pattern of what we find with PA
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Reduced insulin signaling in adulthood increases fitness and longevity in a primitive model organism
From Paper: Reduced insulin signalling in adulthood protects soma and germline under mutation accumulation
Published: Aug 2020
  • Fitness of the surviving UV-induced MA lines was higher under daf-2 RNAi
  • This C. elegans study consisted of a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment with downregulated insulin signaling in half of the 400 MA lines by silencing daf-2 gene expression using RNA interference (RNAi) across 40 generations
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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Mothers with immune related conditions are more likely to have male children on the autism spectrum
From Paper: Maternal immune conditions are increased in males with autism spectrum disorders and are associated with behavioural and emotional but not cognitive co-morbidity
Paul Ashwood
  • A history of maternal asthma was twice as common in male children (20.2%) compared to female children (10.8%) with ASD
  • A history of maternal immune conditions was more common in male children with ASD compared to female children with ASD
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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