Hippocampal function is critical for spatial and contextual learning, and its decline with age contributes to cognitive impairment. Exercise can improve hippocampal function, however, the amount of exercise and mechanisms mediating improvement remain largely unknown. Here, we show exercise reverses learning deficits in aged (24 months) female mice but only when it occurs for a specific duration, with longer or shorter periods proving ineffective. A spike in the levels of growth hormone (GH) and a corresponding increase in neurogenesis during this sweet spot mediate this effect because blocking GH receptor with a competitive antagonist or depleting newborn neurons abrogates the exercise-induced cognitive improvement. Moreover, raising GH levels with GH-releasing hormone agonist improved cognition in nonrunners. We show that GH stimulates neural precursors directly, indicating the link between raised GH and neurogenesis is the basis for the substantially improved learning in aged animals.
Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) efects an important role in neural regeneration and function enhancement, such as expression of nerve growth factor and nerve regeneration, in neuronal tissues, and inhibition of cell death by amyloid beta in neurons is inhibited by PBMT. However, there no studies evaluated the efects of PBMT on oxidative stress in the hippocampus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efects of PBMT on oxidative stress in the hippocampus. This study assessed the antioxidative efect, the expression of BDNF and antioxidant enzymes, as well as the activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathways assess using a hippocampal cell line (HT-22) and mouse organotypic hippocampal tissues by PBMT (LED, 660nm, 20mW/cm2). PBMT inhibited HT-22 cell death by oxidative stress and increased BDNF expression via ERK and CREB signaling pathway activation. In addition, PBMT increased BDNF expression in hippocampal organotypic slices and the levels of phosphorylated ERK and CREB, which were reduced by oxidative stress, as well as the expression of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. These data demonstrate that PBMT inhibits hippocampal damage induced by oxidative stress and increases the expression of BDNF, which can be used as an alternative to treat a variety of related disorders that lead to nerve damage. Activation and redox homeostasis in neuronal cells may be a notable mechanism of the 660-nm PBMT-mediated photobioreactivity
Interoception, the perception of internal bodily states, is thought to be inextricably linked to affective qualities such as anxiety. Although interoception spans sensory to metacognitive processing, it is not clear whether anxiety is differentially related to these processing levels. Here we investigated this question in the domain of breathing, using computational modeling and high-field (7 T) fMRI to assess brain activity relating to dynamic changes in inspiratory resistance of varying predictability. Notably, the anterior insula was associated with both breathing-related prediction certainty and prediction errors, suggesting an important role in representing and updating models of the body. Individuals with low versus moderate anxiety traits showed differential anterior insula activity for prediction certainty. Multi-modal analyses of data from fMRI, computational assessments of breathing-related metacognition, and questionnaires demonstrated that anxiety-interoception links span all levels from perceptual sensitivity to metacognition, with strong effects seen at higher levels of interoceptive processes.
Purpose Although several mechanisms have been proposed for the tumor-suppressive effect of exercise, little attention has been given to myokines even though skeletal muscle is heavily recruited during exercise resulting in myokine surges. We measured resting serum myokine levels before and after an exercise-based intervention and the effect of this serum on prostate cancer cell growth. Methods Ten prostate cancer patients undertaking androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) (age 73.3 ± 5.6 yrs) undertook a 12-week exercise-based intervention including supervised resistance training, self-directed aerobic exercise, and protein supplementation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and muscle strength by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) method. Fasting blood was collected at baseline and post-intervention, and serum levels of myokines: SPARC, OSM, decorin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 were measured. The growth of the prostate cancer cell line DU145 with baseline and post-intervention serum was measured. Results Bodyweight (p = 0.011), fat mass (p = 0.012), and percent body fat (p = 0.033) were reduced, while percent lean mass (p = 0.001) increased as did strength (leg press, p = 0.006; chest press, p = 0.020) across the intervention. Serum OSM levels (p = 0.020) and relative serum OSM levels (p = 0.020) increased compared to baseline. A significant reduction in DU145 Cell Index (p = 0.012) and growth rate (p = 0.012) was observed after applying post-intervention serum compared to baseline serum. Conclusion This study provides evidence for enhanced myokine expression and tumor-suppressive effects of serum from chronically exercise-trained prostate cancer patients on ADT.
Summary Background Emerging evidence suggests increased risk of several physical health conditions in people with ADHD. Only a few physical conditions have been thoroughly studied in relation to ADHD, and there is little knowledge on associations in older adults in particular. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic and aetiological associations between ADHD and a wide range of physical health conditions across adulthood. Methods We did a register study in Sweden and identified full-sibling and maternal half-sibling pairs born between Jan 1, 1932, and Dec 31, 1995, through the Population and Multi-Generation Registers. We excluded individuals who died or emigrated before Jan 1, 2005, and included full-siblings who were not twins and did not have half-siblings. ICD diagnoses were obtained from the National Patient Register. We extracted ICD diagnoses for physical conditions, when participants were aged 18 years or older, from inpatient (recorded 1973–2013) and outpatient (recorded 2001–13) services. Diagnoses were regarded as lifetime presence or absence. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between ADHD (exposure) and 35 physical conditions (outcomes) in individuals and across sibling pairs. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors accounted for the associations with ADHD. Findings 4 789 799 individuals were identified (2 449 146 [51%] men and 2 340 653 [49%] women), who formed 4 288 451 unique sibling pairs (3 819 207 full-sibling pairs and 469 244 maternal half-sibling pairs) and 1 841 303 family clusters (siblings, parents, cousins, spouses). The mean age at end of follow-up was 47 years (range 18–81; mean birth year 1966); ethnicity data were not available. Adults with ADHD had increased risk for most physical conditions (34 [97%] of 35) compared with adults without ADHD; the strongest associations were with nervous system disorders (eg, sleep disorders, epilepsy, dementia; odds ratios [ORs] 1·50–4·62) and respiratory diseases (eg, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ORs 2·42–3·24). Sex-stratified analyses showed similar patterns of results in men and women. Stronger cross-disorder associations were found between full-siblings than between half-siblings for nervous system, respiratory, musculoskeletal, and metabolic diseases (p
Early exposure to psychosocial adversity is among the most potent predictors of depression. Because depression commonly emerges prior to adulthood, we must consider the fundamental principles of developmental neuroscience when examining how experiences of childhood adversity, including abuse and neglect, can lead to depression. Considering that both the environment and the brain are highly dynamic across the period spanning gestation through adolescence, the purpose of this review is to discuss and integrate stress-based models of depression that center developmental processes. We offer a general framework for understanding how psychosocial adversity in early life disrupts or calibrates the biobehavioral systems implicated in depression. Specifically, we propose that the sources and nature of the environmental input shaping the brain, and the mechanisms of neuroplasticity involved, change across development. We contend that the effects of adversity largely depend on the developmental stage of the organism. First, we summarize leading neurobiological models that focus on the effects of adversity on risk for mental disorders, including depression. In particular, we highlight models of allostatic load, acceleration maturation, dimensions of adversity, and sensitive or critical periods. Second, we expound on and review evidence for the formulation that distinct mechanisms of neuroplasticity are implicated depending on the timing of adverse experiences, and that inherent within certain windows of development are constraints on the sources and nature of these experiences. Finally, we consider other important facets of adverse experiences (e.g., environmental unpredictability, perceptions of one’s experiences) before discussing promising research directions for the future of the field.
Ultraviolet (UV) light affects endocrinological and behavioral aspects of sexuality via an unknown mechanism. Here we discover that ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure enhances the levels of sex-steroid hormones and sexual behavior, which are mediated by the skin. In female mice, UVB exposure increases hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels, resulting in larger ovaries; extends estrus days; and increases anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) expression. UVB exposure also enhances the sexual responsiveness and attractiveness of females and male-female interactions. Conditional knockout of p53 specifically in skin keratinocytes abolishes the effects of UVB. Thus, UVB triggers a skin-brain-gonadal axis through skin p53 activation. In humans, solar exposure enhances romantic passion in both genders and aggressiveness in men, as seen in analysis of individual questionaries, and positively correlates with testosterone level. Our findings suggest opportunities for treatment of sex-steroid-related dysfunctions.
Between 6–20% of the cellular proteome is under circadian control and tunes mammalian cell function with daily environmental cycles. For cell viability, and to maintain volume within narrow limits, the daily variation in osmotic potential exerted by changes in the soluble proteome must be counterbalanced. The mechanisms and consequences of this osmotic compensation have not been investigated before. In cultured cells and in tissue we find that compensation involves electroneutral active transport of Na+, K+, and Cl− through differential activity of SLC12A family cotransporters. In cardiomyocytes ex vivo and in vivo, compensatory ion fluxes confer daily variation in electrical activity. Perturbation of soluble protein abundance has commensurate effects on ion composition and cellular function across the circadian cycle. Thus, circadian regulation of the proteome impacts ion homeostasis with substantial consequences for the physiology of electrically active cells such as cardiomyocytes.
Although animal protein is usually considered to be a more potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis than plant protein, the effect of protein source on lean mass and muscle strength needs to be systematically reviewed. This study aimed to examine potential differences in the effect of animal vs. plant protein on lean mass and muscle strength, and the possible influence of resistance exercise training (RET) and age. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and CINAHL Plus with Full Text, and 3081 articles were screened. A total of 18 articles were selected for systematic review, of which, 16 were used for meta-analysis. Total protein intakes were generally above the recommended dietary allowance at the baseline and end of intervention. Results from the meta-analyses demonstrated that protein source did not affect changes in absolute lean mass or muscle strength. However, there was a favoring effect of animal protein on percent lean mass. RET had no influence on the results, while younger adults (
Cholesterol is an essential component for neuronal physiology not only during development stage but also in the adult life. Cholesterol metabolism in brain is independent from that in peripheral tissues due to blood-brain barrier. The content of cholesterol in brain must be accurately maintained in order to keep brain function well. Defects in brain cholesterol metabolism has been shown to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and some cognitive deficits typical of the old age. The brain contains large amount of cholesterol, but the cholesterol metabolism and its complex homeostasis regulation are currently poorly understood. This review will seek to integrate current knowledge about the brain cholesterol metabolism with molecular mechanisms.