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Trending Papers in psychology

The experience of social rejection does not cause a person to act more friendly (or aggressive) in their next social interactions
From Paper: Does the Prospect of Fulfilling Belonging Affect Social Responses to Rejection? A Conceptual Replication Attempt:
Published: Jul 2018
  • After being socially rejected, do people behave friendlier (and less aggressive) to a person who is likely to socially accept them than those who do not? Contrary to the existing evidence, the current research found that socially rejected people do not change their responses.
  • The null results persisted after accounting for gender, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, fear of negative evaluation, rejection sensitivity, and self-esteem
Submitted by Naoyuki Sunami
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The Bi-Dimensional Rejection Taxonomy: Organizing Responses to Social Rejection along Antisocial–Prosocial and Engaged–Disengaged Dimensions
Published: Sep 2019
  • The bi-dimensional rejection taxonomy classifies responses to rejection using two-dimensions: antisocial–prosocial and engaged–disengaged.
  • People behaviorally respond to social rejection in many ways. But, there is no comprehensive way to classify behavioral responses to rejection.
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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A review of the common neural circuits and molecular signaling pathways between autism spectrum disorder and drug addiction
From Paper: Autism Spectrum Disorders and Drug Addiction: Common Pathways, Common Molecules, Distinct Disorders?
Published: Feb 2016
  • Rodent models of ASDs and addiction obviously lack the nuance and specificity of the clinical condition, but some interesting similarities in repetitive behavioral patterns seem to suggest common striatal circuitry may be affected in both disorders
  • Given this established link between addiction and D1-medium spiny neuron in the nucleus accumbens, it is interesting that recent reports linked these same cells to social behavior in wild-type mice, as well as repetitive behavior in mice carrying ASD-associated mutations
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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The youngest children in a classroom are more likely to be medicated for ADHD
From Paper: Annual Research Review: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder late birthdate effect common in both high and low prescribing international jurisdictions: a systematic review
Whitely, Martin, et al
Published: Jan 2019
  • The authors believe these findings indicate that ADHD may be misdiagnosed in these younger children and is possibly more representative of a natural lack of maturity compared to the average student in their classroom
  • It is clear that it is the norm internationally for the youngest children in a classroom to be at increased risk of being diagnosed with and medicated for ADHD, even in jurisdictions with relatively low prescribing rates
Submitted by Will McBurnie
A meta-analysis of twin studies finds that genes significantly contribute to differences in self-control: the overall heritability is about 60%
From Paper: The heritability of self-control: A meta-analysis
Published: May 2019
  • The heritability is the same for boys and girls, and across age
  • The results revealed an overall identical twin correlation of 0.58, and an overall fraternal twin correlation of 0.28, resulting in a heritability estimate of 60%
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
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A single dose of acetaminophen (Tylenol) will make a person more likely to take risks
From Paper: Effects of acetaminophen on risk taking
  • The results indicate that acetaminophen can increase risk-taking, which may be due to reductions in risk perceptions
  • This study tested the hypothesis that acute acetaminophen consumption (1000 mg) could influence important judgments and decisions concerning risk
Submitted by Will McBurnie
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Investigating the association between family connectedness and self-control in adolescence in a genetically sensitive design
Y. E. Willems, O. Laceulle, M. Bartels, C. Finkenauer
Published: Feb 2020
Family connectedness is key for the development of self-control in early and middle childhood. But is family connectedness still important during the transitional phase of adolescence, when adolescents demand more independence from their parents and rely more on their peers? The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between family connectedness and self-control, and whether it still holds in adolescence using a genetically sensitive design. Data were used from a large sample of twins aged 14 ( N  = 11,260) and aged 16 ( N  = 8175), all enrolled in the Netherlands Twin Register. We applied bivariate twin models and monozygotic twin difference models to investigate the association between family connectedness and self-control and to unravel to what extent genetic and environmental factors explain this association. The results showed that more family connectedness is significantly related to better self-control in adolescence, albeit with a small effect size. Twin analyses revealed that this association was mainly explained by common genetic factors and that the effects of environmental factors were small. The current findings confirm the role of family connectedness in adolescent self-control. Importantly, however, the results demonstrate that phenomena we see within families seem the product of parent and children sharing the same genes rather than being exclusively attributable to environmental processes.
Retrieved from semantic_scholar
Wikipedia outperforms individuals when it comes to hindsight bias
Aileen Oeberst, Ina von der Beck, U. Cress, S. Nestler
Published: Mar 2019
Hindsight bias—the tendency to overestimate in hindsight what one knew in foresight—is a robust and pervasive human error. A recent study with Wikipedia articles, however, found evidence for a hindsight bias only for disasters but not for any other event category (e.g., elections). Although this might suggest Wikipedia articles to be less biased than individuals, alternative explanations had not been ruled out. The present study set out to answer this question by comparing individuals’ and Wikipedia’s representation of the very same event in foresight and hindsight. In particular, we made use of a state election and surveyed one part of participants before and after the outcome and had other participants rate the corresponding Wikipedia article versions with regard to the extent to which the article was suggestive of a particular outcome and presented it as foreseeable and inevitable. In line with prior research and our hypotheses, we found a hindsight bias at the individual level but not in Wikipedia articles. Applying Bayesian statistics, there was substantial support for the null hypothesis (i.e., no hindsight bias) in Wikipedia. By controlling for the potential impact of participants’ own hindsight bias on their article ratings we can rule out alternative explanations of our findings. Therefore, our findings are the first to demonstrate Wikipedia’s superiority over individuals when it comes to hindsight bias.
Retrieved from semantic_scholar
The Tendency for Interpersonal Victimhood with 4 dimensions 1) need for recognition 2) moral elitism 3) lack of empathy 4) frequent rumination
From Paper: (PDF) The Tendency for Interpersonal Victimhood: The Personality Construct and its Consequences
Published: May 2020
  • TIV predicted entitlement (β = .27, p < .001) better than all other measures. In fact, other than motivation for revenge (β = .21, p = .002) and private consciousness (β = -.16, p = .027), none of other measures significantly predicted entitlement (ps > .115).
  • We found that TIV was positively correlated with participants’ rejection sensitivity (r = .23, p < .001), victim-sensitivity (r = .49, p < .001), private consciousness (r =.27, p < .001), public consciousness (r = .42, p < .001), and motivation for revenge (r = .28, p< .001); but not with motivation for avoidance (r = .10, p = .104), and motivation for benevolence (r = .03, p = .646). The correlation between TIV and the forgiveness scale indicated that higher scores on TIV meant a greater lack of motivation to forgive (r = .15, p = .015; see Table S6; for correlations with each of TIV’s dimensions, see Table S7).
Submitted by Angela Meng
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The Hong Kong Principles for assessing researchers: Fostering research integrity
  • This paper proposes a way to improve the rigor and trustworthiness of research.
  • It advocates that researchers are explicitly recognized and rewarded for behaviors that strengthen research integrity.
Submitted by Lex Bouter
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