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Published: Apr 15, 2021

Authors: Artur Czerwinski, Artur Czerwinski

Published: Apr 15, 2021

Authors: Artur Czerwinski, Artur Czerwinski

In this article, we introduce a framework for entanglement detection of photon pairs represented by two-qubit Werner states. The measurement scheme is based on the symmetric informationally complete POVM. To make the framework realistic, we impose the Poisson noise on the measured two-photon coincidences. For various settings, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the efficiency of the framework.

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Published: Apr 20, 2021

Authors: Clelia Verde, Lee Smolin, Clelia Verde

Published: Apr 20, 2021

Authors: Clelia Verde, Lee Smolin, Clelia Verde

We propose a reformulation of quantum mechanics in which the distinction between definite and indefinite becomes the fundamental primitive. Inspired by suggestions of Heisenberg, Schrodinger and Dyson that the past can't be described in terms of wavefunctions and operators, so that the uncertainty principle does not apply to past events, we propose that the distinction between past, present and future is derivative of the fundamental distinction between indefinite and definite. %The same is the case for the quantum world versus classical world distinction of the Copenhagen interpretation. We then outline a novel form of presentism based on a phenomonology of events, where an event is defined as an instance of transition between indefinite and definite. Neither the past nor the future fully exist, but for different reasons. We finally suggest reformulating physics in terms of a new class of time coordinates in which the present time of a future event measures a countdown to the present moment in which that event will happen.

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Published: Apr 19, 2021

Authors: Sciarrino, Fabio, et al

Published: Apr 19, 2021

Authors: Sciarrino, Fabio, et al

Quantum coherence marks a deviation from classical physics, and has been studied as a resource for metrology and quantum computation. Finding reliable and effective methods for assessing its presence is then highly desirable. Coherence witnesses rely on measuring observables whose outcomes can guarantee that a state is not diagonal in a known reference basis. Here we experimentally measure a novel type of coherence witness that uses pairwise state comparisons to identify superpositions in a basis-independent way. Our experiment uses a single interferometric set-up to simultaneously measure the three pairwise overlaps among three single-photon states via Hong-Ou-Mandel tests. Besides coherence witnesses, we show the measurements also serve as a Hilbert-space dimension witness. Our results attest to the effectiveness of pooling many two-state comparison tests to ascertain various relational properties of a set of quantum states.

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Published: Apr 16, 2021

Authors: Antony Valentini, Antony Valentini

Published: Apr 16, 2021

Authors: Antony Valentini, Antony Valentini

We argue that in quantum gravity there is no Born rule. The quantum-gravity regime, described by a non-normalisable Wheeler-DeWitt wave functional $\Psi$, must be in quantum nonequilibrium with a probability distribution $P\neq\left\vert \Psi\right\vert ^{2}$ (initially and always). A Born rule can emerge only in the semiclassical regime of quantum systems on a classical spacetime background, with normalisable Schr\"{o}dinger wave functions $\psi$. Conditioning on the underlying quantum-gravitational ensemble yields a nonequilibrium distribution $\rho\neq\left\vert \psi\right\vert ^{2}$ at the beginning of the semiclassical regime, with quantum relaxation $\rho\rightarrow\left\vert \psi\right\vert ^{2}$ taking place only afterwards. Quantum gravity naturally creates an early nonequilibrium universe. We also show how small corrections to the Schr\"{o}dinger equation yield an intermediate regime in which the Born rule is unstable: an initial distribution $\rho=\left\vert \psi\right\vert ^{2}$ can evolve to a final distribution $\rho\neq\left\vert \psi\right\vert ^{2}$. These results arise naturally in the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum gravity. We show that quantum instability during inflation generates a large-scale deficit $\sim1/k^{3}$ in the primordial power spectrum at wavenumber $k$, though the effect is too small to observe. Similarly we find an unobservably large timescale for quantum instability in a radiation-dominated universe. Quantum instability may be important in black-hole evaporation, with a final burst of Hawking radiation that violates the Born rule. Deviations from the Born rule can also be generated for atomic systems in the gravitational field of the earth, though the effects are unlikely to be observable. The most promising scenario for the detection of Born-rule violations appears to be in radiation from exploding primordial black holes.

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Published: Apr 14, 2021

Authors: GuiLu Long, ShiJie Wei, YanHu Chen, ZengRong Zhou, GuiLu Long

Published: Apr 14, 2021

Authors: GuiLu Long, ShiJie Wei, YanHu Chen, ZengRong Zhou, GuiLu Long

Quantum machine learning is one of the most promising applications of quantum computing in the Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum(NISQ) era. Here we propose a quantum convolutional neural network(QCNN) inspired by convolutional neural networks(CNN), which greatly reduces the computing complexity compared with its classical counterparts, with $O((log_{2}M)^6) $ basic gates and $O(m^2+e)$ variational parameters, where $M$ is the input data size, $m$ is the filter mask size and $e$ is the number of parameters in a Hamiltonian. Our model is robust to certain noise for image recognition tasks and the parameters are independent on the input sizes, making it friendly to near-term quantum devices. We demonstrate QCNN with two explicit examples. First, QCNN is applied to image processing and numerical simulation of three types of spatial filtering, image smoothing, sharpening, and edge detection are performed. Secondly, we demonstrate QCNN in recognizing image, namely, the recognition of handwritten numbers. Compared with previous work, this machine learning model can provide implementable quantum circuits that accurately corresponds to a specific classical convolutional kernel. It provides an efficient avenue to transform CNN to QCNN directly and opens up the prospect of exploiting quantum power to process information in the era of big data.

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Published: Apr 14, 2021

Authors: Kyrillidis, Anastasios, et al

Published: Apr 14, 2021

Authors: Kyrillidis, Anastasios, et al

We propose a new quantum state reconstruction method that combines ideas from compressed sensing, non-convex optimization, and acceleration methods. The algorithm, called Momentum-Inspired Factored Gradient Descent (\texttt{MiFGD}), extends the applicability of quantum tomography for larger systems. Despite being a non-convex method, \texttt{MiFGD} converges \emph{provably} to the true density matrix at a linear rate, in the absence of experimental and statistical noise, and under common assumptions. With this manuscript, we present the method, prove its convergence property and provide Frobenius norm bound guarantees with respect to the true density matrix. From a practical point of view, we benchmark the algorithm performance with respect to other existing methods, in both synthetic and real experiments performed on an IBM's quantum processing unit. We find that the proposed algorithm performs orders of magnitude faster than state of the art approaches, with the same or better accuracy. In both synthetic and real experiments, we observed accurate and robust reconstruction, despite experimental and statistical noise in the tomographic data. Finally, we provide a ready-to-use code for state tomography of multi-qubit systems.

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Published: Apr 20, 2021

Authors: Daowen Qiu, Daowen Qiu

Published: Apr 20, 2021

Authors: Daowen Qiu, Daowen Qiu

Discrete event systems (DES) have been established and deeply developed in the framework of probabilistic and fuzzy computing models due to the necessity of practical applications in fuzzy and probabilistic systems. With the development of quantum computing and quantum control, a natural problem is to simulate DES by means of quantum computing models and to establish {\it quantum DES} (QDES). The motivation is twofold: on the one hand, QDES have potential applications when DES are simulated and processed by quantum computers, where quantum systems are employed to simulate the evolution of states driven by discrete events, and on the other hand, QDES may have essential advantages over DES concerning state complexity for imitating some practical problems. The goal of this paper is to establish a basic framework of QDES by using {\it quantum finite automata} (QFA) as the modelling formalisms, and the supervisory control theorems of QDES are established and proved. Then we present a polynomial-time algorithm to decide whether or not the controllability condition holds. In particular, we construct a number of new examples of QFA to illustrate the supervisory control of QDES and to verify the essential advantages of QDES over DES in state complexity.

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Published: Apr 9, 2021

Authors: Yunes, Nicolás, et al

Published: Apr 9, 2021

Authors: Yunes, Nicolás, et al

Timing of millisecond pulsars has long been used as an exquisitely precise tool for testing the building blocks of general relativity, including the strong equivalence principle and Lorentz symmetry. Observations of binary systems involving at least one millisecond pulsar have been used to place bounds on the parameters of Einstein-{\ae}ther theory, a gravitational theory that violates Lorentz symmetry at low energies via a preferred and dynamical time threading of the spacetime manifold. However, these studies did not cover the region of parameter space that is still viable after the recent bounds on the speed of gravitational waves from GW170817/GRB170817A. The restricted coverage was due to limitations in the methods used to compute the pulsar sensitivities, which parameterize violations of the strong-equivalence principle in these systems. We extend here the calculation of pulsar sensitivities to the parameter space of Einstein-{\ae}ther theory that remains viable after GW170817/GRB170817A. We show that observations of the damping of the period of quasi-circular binary pulsars and of the triple system PSR J0337+1715 further constrain the viable parameter space by about an order of magnitude over previous constraints.

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Published: Apr 12, 2021

Authors: Laure Gouba, Laure Gouba

Published: Apr 12, 2021

Authors: Laure Gouba, Laure Gouba

We formulate the Lagrangian of the Newtonian cosmology where the cosmological constant is also introduced. Following the affine quantization procedure, the Hamiltonian operator is derived. The wave functions of the Newtonian universe and the corresponding eigenvalues for the case of matter dominated by a negative cosmological constant are given.

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Published: Apr 15, 2021

Authors: Samuel Chen, En-Jui Kuo, Yao-Lung Fang, Samuel Chen

Published: Apr 15, 2021

Authors: Samuel Chen, En-Jui Kuo, Yao-Lung Fang, Samuel Chen

Recent advances in quantum computing have drawn considerable attention to building realistic application for and using quantum computers. However, designing a suitable quantum circuit architecture requires expert knowledge. For example, it is non-trivial to design a quantum gate sequence for generating a particular quantum state with as fewer gates as possible. We propose a quantum architecture search framework with the power of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to address this challenge. In the proposed framework, the DRL agent can only access the Pauli-$X$, $Y$, $Z$ expectation values and a predefined set of quantum operations for learning the target quantum state, and is optimized by the advantage actor-critic (A2C) and proximal policy optimization (PPO) algorithms. We demonstrate a successful generation of quantum gate sequences for multi-qubit GHZ states without encoding any knowledge of quantum physics in the agent. The design of our framework is rather general and can be employed with other DRL architectures or optimization methods to study gate synthesis and compilation for many quantum states.

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