Marine animals equipped with biological and physical electronic sensors have produced long-term data streams on key marine environmental variables, hydrography, animal behavior and ecology. These data are an essential component of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). The Animal Borne Ocean Sensors (AniBOS) network aims to coordinate the long-term collection and delivery of marine data streams, providing a complementary capability to other GOOS networks that monitor Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs), essential climate variables (ECVs) and essential biodiversity variables (EBVs). AniBOS augments observations of temperature and salinity within the upper ocean, in areas that are under-sampled, providing information that is urgently needed for an improved understanding of climate and ocean variability and for forecasting. Additionally, measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and dissolved oxygen concentrations are emerging. The observations AniBOS provides are used widely across the research, modeling and operational oceanographic communities. High latitude, shallow coastal shelves and tropical seas have historically been sampled poorly with traditional observing platforms for many reasons including sea ice presence, limited satellite coverage and logistical costs. Animal-borne sensors are helping to fill that gap by collecting and transmitting in near real time an average of 500 temperature-salinity-depth profiles per animal annually and, when instruments are recovered (∼30% of instruments deployed annually, n = 103 ± 34), up to 1,000 profiles per month in these regions. Increased observations from under-sampled regions greatly improve the accuracy and confidence in estimates of ocean state and improve studies of climate variability by delivering data that refine climate prediction estimates at regional and global scales. The GOOS Observations Coordination Group (OCG) reviews, advises on and coordinates activities across the global ocean observing networks to strengthen the effective implementation of the system. AniBOS was formally recognized in 2020 as a GOOS network. This improves our ability to observe the ocean’s structure and animals that live in them more comprehensively, concomitantly improving our understanding of global ocean and climate processes for societal benefit consistent with the UN Sustainability Goals 13 and 14: Climate and Life below Water. Working within the GOOS OCG framework ensures that AniBOS is an essential component of an integrated Global Ocean Observing System.
Sabancaya is the most active volcano of the Ampato‐Sabancaya Volcanic Complex (ASVC) in southern Perú and has been erupting since 2016. The analysis of ascending and descending Sentinel‐1 orbits (DInSAR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) datasets from 2014 to 2019 imaged a radially symmetric inflating area, uplifting at a rate of 35 to 50 mm/yr and centered 5 km north of Sabancaya. The DInSAR and GNSS data were modeled independently. We inverted the DInSAR data to infer the location, depth, and volume change of the deformation source. Then, we verified the DInSAR deformation model against the results from the inversion of the GNSS data. Our modelling results suggest that the imaged inflation pattern can be explained by a source 12 to 15 km deep, with a volume change rate between 26 × 106 m3/yr and 46 × 106 m3/yr, located between the Sabancaya and Hualca Hualca volcano. The observed regional inflation pattern, concentration of earthquake epicenters north of the ASVC, and inferred location of the deformation source indicate that the current eruptive activity at Sabancaya is fed by a deep regional reservoir through a lateral magmatic plumbing system.
The concept of Smart Cities has been introduced as a way to benefit from the digitization of various ecosystems at a city level. To support this concept, future communication networks need to be carefully designed with respect to the city infrastructure and utilization of resources. Recently, the idea of `smart' environment, which takes advantage of the infrastructure in order to enable better performance of wireless networks, has been proposed. This idea is aligned with the recent advances in design of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs), which are planar structures with the capability to reflect impinging electromagnetic waves toward preferred directions. Thus, RISs are expected to provide the necessary flexibility for the design of the `smart' communication environment, which can be optimally shaped to enable cost- and energy-efficient signal transmissions where needed. Upon deployment of RISs, the ecosystem of the Smart Cities would become even more controllable and adaptable, which would subsequently ease the implementation of future communication networks in urban areas and boost the interconnection among private households and public services. In this article, we provide our vision on RIS integration into future Smart Cities by pointing out some forward-looking new application scenarios and use cases and by highlighting the potential advantages of RIS deployment. To this end, we identify the most promising research directions and opportunities. The respective design problems are formulated mathematically. Moreover, we focus the discussion on the key enabling aspects for RIS-assisted Smart Cities, which require substantial research efforts such as pilot decontamination, precoding for large multiuser networks, distributed operation and control of RISs. These contributions pave the road to a systematic design of RIS-assisted communication networks for Smart Cities in the years to come.
The fifth generation (5G) of wireless networks promises to meet the stringent requirements of vehicular use cases that cannot be supported by previous technologies. However, the stakeholders of the automotive industry (e.g., car manufacturers and road operators) are still skeptical about the capability of the telecom industry to take the lead in a market that has been dominated by dedicated intelligent transport systems (ITS) deployments. In this context, this paper constructs a framework where the potential of 5G to support different vehicular use cases is thoroughly examined under a common format from both the technical and business perspectives. From the technical standpoint, a storyboard description is developed to explain when and how different use case scenarios may come into play (i.e., pre-conditions, service flows and post-conditions). Then, a methodology to trial each scenario is developed including a functional architecture, an analysis of the technical requirements and a set of target test cases. From the business viewpoint, an initial analysis of the qualitative value perspectives is conducted considering the stakeholders, identifying the pain points of the existing solutions, and highlighting the added value of 5G in overcoming them. The future evolution of the considered use cases is finally discussed.
At present, conflicts between urban development and the climate environment are becoming increasingly apparent under rapid urbanization in China. Revealing the dynamic mechanism and controlling factors of the urban outdoor thermal environment is the necessary theoretical preparation for regulating and improving the urban climate environment. Taking Hangzhou as an example and based on the local climate zones classification system, we investigated the effects of land cover composition and structure on temperature variability at the local scale. The measurement campaign was conducted within four local climate zones (LCZ 2, 4, 5, and LCZ 9) during 7 days in the summer of 2018. The results showed that the temperature difference within the respective LCZ was always below 1.1 °C and the mean temperature difference between LCZs caused by different surface physical properties was as high as 1.6 °C at night. Among four LCZs, LCZ 2 was always the hottest, and LCZ 9 was the coolest at night. In particular, the percentage of pervious surface was the most important land cover feature in explaining the air temperature difference. For both daytime and nighttime, increasing the percentage of pervious surface as well as decreasing the percentage of impervious surface and the percentage of building surface could lower the local temperature, with the strongest influence radius range from 120 m to 150 m. Besides, the temperature increased with the SVF increased at day and opposite at night.
The Earth Observation (EO) domain can provide valuable information products that can significantly reduce the cost of mapping flood extent and improve the accuracy of mapping and monitoring systems. In this study, Landsat 5, 7, and 8 were utilized to map flood inundation areas. Google Earth Engine (GEE) was used to implement Flood Mapping Algorithm (FMA) and process the Landsat data. FMA relies on developing a “data cube”, which is spatially overlapped pixels of Landsat 5, 7, and 8 imagery captured over a period of time. This data cube is used to identify temporary and permanent water bodies using the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) and site-specific elevation and land use data. The results were assessed by calculating a confusion matrix for nine flood events spread over the globe. The FMA had a high true positive accuracy ranging from 71–90% and overall accuracy in the range of 74–89%. In short, observations from FMA in GEE can be used as a rapid and robust hindsight tool for mapping flood inundation areas, training AI models, and enhancing existing efforts towards flood mitigation, monitoring, and management.
The Copper Basin (CB) of southeastern Tennessee, known as the Ducktown Mining District, is a classic example of forest and soil destruction due to extensive mining and smelting operations from the mid-1800s until 1987. The smelting operation released a sulfur dioxide by-product that formed sulfuric acid precipitation which, in combination with heavy logging, led to the complete denudation of all vegetation covering 130 km2 in CB. The area has since been successfully revegetated. This study used remote sensing technology to map the different episodes of this vegetation recovery process. A time series of Landsat imagery acquired from 1977 through 2017 at 10-year intervals was used to map and analyze the changes in vegetation cover in CB. These maps were used to generate a single thematic map indicating in which 10-year period each parcel of land was revegetated. Analysis shows that the extent of non-vegetated areas continuously decreased from about 38.5 to 2.5 km2 between 1977 and 2017. The greatest increase in vegetation regrowth occurred between 1987 and 1997, which was the period when all mining and smelting activities ceased. This research could be very useful to better understand the recovery process of areas affected by mining and smelting processes.
We explore the use of elastic Green’s functions in inversions of one-dimensional Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations to recover three-dimensional displacement fields. This approach enforces coupling of the horizontal displacements and limits the need for prior assumptions about the subsurface sources, driving the deformation or explicit damping of a given dimension of the full 3D deformation field. We apply these methods to data from the Coachella Valley, California, where artificial groundwater recharge in 2017 and the associated increases in pore pressure resulted in ground displacements of up to 12 cm. This area is covered by Sentinel-1a/b data for two overlapping paths from both ascending and descending orbits, as well as an east-west flight line from the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR), providing five unique line-of-sight geometries. The regularization approaches applied to the Sentinel data alone agree in most respects, with the elastically coupled approach producing a slightly better fit to the independent UAVSAR observations. Our results suggest that the 2017 groundwater entrainment in the Coachella Valley is likely associated with significant horizontal displacements that led to contraction across the fault bounding the northern side of the basin, as well as increases in right-lateral sense of strain in some areas along the fault.
The Tulare Basin in Central California is a site of intensive agricultural activity and extraction of groundwater, with pronounced ground subsidence and degradation of water resources over the past century. Spatially extensive observations of ground displacements from satellite-based remote sensing allow us to infer the response of the aquifer system to changes in usage and to marked recharge events such as the heavy winter rainfall in 2017. Radar imagery from the Sentinel-1a/b satellites (November 2014 to October 2017) illuminates secular and seasonal trends modulated by changes in withdrawal rates and the magnitude of winter precipitation. Despite the increased precipitation in early 2017 that led to a marked decrease, or in some areas, reversal, of subsidence rates, subsidence returned to rates observed during the drought within a matter of months. Spatially and temporally complex Central California aquifer storage is inferred from Sentinel-1a/b satellite radar imagery. Spatially and temporally complex Central California aquifer storage is inferred from Sentinel-1a/b satellite radar imagery.
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) allows for mapping of crustal deformation on land with high spatial resolution and precision in areas with high signal-to-noise ratios. Efforts to obtain precise displacement time series globally, however, are severely limited by radar path delays within the troposphere. The tropospheric delay is integrated along the full path length between the ground and the satellite, resulting in correlations between the interferometric phase and elevation that can vary dramatically in both space and time. We evaluate the performance of spatially variable, empirical removal of phase-elevation dependence within SAR interferograms through the use of the K -means clustering algorithm. We apply this method to both synthetic test data, as well as to C-band Sentinel-1a/b time series acquired over a large area in south-central Mexico along the Pacific coast and inland-an area with a large elevation gradient that is of particular interest to researchers studying tectonic- and anthropogenic-related deformation. We show that the clustering algorithm is able to identify cases where tropospheric properties vary across topographic divides, reducing total root mean square (rms) by an average of 50%, as opposed to a spatially constant phase-elevation correction, which has insignificant error reduction. Our approach also reduces tropospheric noise while preserving test signals in synthetic examples. Finally, we show the average standard deviation of the residuals from the best-fit linear rate decreases from approximately 3 to 1.5 cm, which corresponds to a change in the error on the best-fit linear rate from 0.94 to 0.63 cm/yr.