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Trending Papers in sociology

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13
A meta-analysis of twin studies finds that genes significantly contribute to differences in self-control: the overall heritability is about 60%
From Paper: The heritability of self-control: A meta-analysis
Published: May 2019
  • The heritability is the same for boys and girls, and across age
  • The results revealed an overall identical twin correlation of 0.58, and an overall fraternal twin correlation of 0.28, resulting in a heritability estimate of 60%
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Slide 1 of 1
13
Peer Production on the Crypto Commons: Toward a Commons Based Economy
From Paper: TEMPLATE
Published: Nov 2019
  • Governance of blockchain communities is an emerging phenomenon, and involves interplay between a variety of different ecosystem stakeholders (software developers, PoW miners, PoS voters, cryptocurrency exchanges and payment providers, node operators, casual users and die-hard hodlers). The rules of the protocol dictate the relative power and influence of these groups.
  • Cryptocurrency relies on Free Open Source Software (FOSS) principles and practices, and can only work on open source principles. The cryptocurrency movement should be understood as part of the FOSS movement, or its successor.
Submitted by Richard Red
Slide 1 of 1
15
Knowledge produced by universities is not often in a form that can be readily digested and turned into new goods and services.
From Paper: The changing structure of American innovation: Some cautionary remarks for economic growth
Published: Jun 2019
  • Small firms and university technology transfer offices cannot fully substitute for corporate research, which had integrated multiple disciplines at the scale required to solve significant technical problems.
  • Knowledge produced by universities is not often in a form that can be readily commercialized.
Submitted by Brian Armstrong
Slide 1 of 1
8
Experts and authorities receive disproportionate attention on Twitter during the COVID-19 crisis
Published: Aug 2020
  • Healthcare accounts on average rank lowest with respect to follower count during the study period (12 out of 12 when ignoring the “Other” category), but rank in the upper half (6 out of 12) with respect to engagement.
  • While accounts in all categories on average increased their tweet volume, accounts related to Science, Healthcare, and Government & Politics saw the largest boosts in engagement.
Submitted by Joshua Lee
Slide 1 of 1
3
A Dynamical Framework for Modeling Fear of Infection and Frustration with Social Distancing in COVID-19 Spread
Authors:
Matthew D. Johnston, Bruce Pell
Published: Aug 2020
In this paper, we introduce a novel modeling framework for incorporating fear of infection and frustration with social distancing into disease dynamics. We show that the resulting SEIR behavior-perception model has three principal modes of qualitative behavior---no outbreak, controlled outbreak, and uncontrolled outbreak. We also demonstrate that the model can produce transient and sustained waves of infection consistent with secondary outbreaks. We fit the model to cumulative COVID-19 case and mortality data from several regions. Our analysis suggests that regions which experience a significant decline after the first wave of infection, such as Canada and Israel, are more likely to contain secondary waves of infection, whereas regions which only achieve moderate success in mitigating the disease's spread initially, such as the United States, are likely to experience substantial secondary waves or uncontrolled outbreaks.
Submitted by Joshua Lee
2
Why Are Complementary Currency Systems Difficult to Grasp within Conventional Economics?
Les monnaies complémentaires (MC) permettent de comptabiliser et de régler des échanges de biens et de services dans un espace local et circulent en complémentarité de la monnaie officielle. Malgré leur actualité et leur nombre, la grande majorité des économistes semblent accorder une attention marginale à ces monnaies complémentaires. Cet article propose quelques facteurs explicatifs. Fondamentalement, l'économie conventionnelle est basée sur une approche méthodologique et sur des conceptions théoriques et normatives de la monnaie - son essence, son statut, sa taille et sa gouvernance - qui l'empêchent de comprendre ces dispositifs monétaires. Tout d’abord, l'hétérogénéité des MC et leur émergence nouvelle confrontent l'économie à un problème méthodologique de mesure de leurs impacts. Ensuite, nous montrons que, en raison de leur pouvoir d'achat limité dans le temps et dans l'espace, l'économie ne peut justifier leur utilisation dans l'économie marchande. Enfin, nous verrons que les règles monétaires d'émission et de régulation des MC empêchent les principales approches monétaires contemporaines de les reconnaître et de les légitimer.
Submitted by Ida Rolf
2
How prohibition impacted innovation: U.S. counties that ban alcohol sales have 8-18% less patents per year
  • This paper examines how alcohol prohibition, a massive and involuntary disruption of informal social networks from U.S. history, impacted invention
Submitted by Patrick Joyce
Slide 1 of 1
8
YouTube may escalate radicalization but does not generate it
From Paper: Auditing Radicalization Pathways on YouTube
Published: Dec 2019
Non-profits, as well as the media, have hypothesized the existence of a radicalization pipeline on YouTube, claiming that users systematically progress towards more extreme content on the platform. Yet, there is to date no substantial quantitative evidence of this alleged pipeline. To close this gap, we conduct a large-scale audit of user radicalization on YouTube. We analyze 330,925 videos posted on 349 channels, which we broadly classified into four types: Media, the Alt-lite, the Intellectual Dark Web (I.D.W.), and the Alt-right. According to the aforementioned radicalization hypothesis, channels in the I.D.W. and the Alt-lite serve as gateways to fringe far-right ideology, here represented by Alt-right channels. Processing 72M+ comments, we show that the three channel types indeed increasingly share the same user base; that users consistently migrate from milder to more extreme content; and that a large percentage of users who consume Alt-right content now consumed Alt-lite and I.D.W. content in the past. We also probe YouTube's recommendation algorithm, looking at more than 2M video and channel recommendations between May/July 2019. We find that Alt-lite content is easily reachable from I.D.W. channels, while Alt-right videos are reachable only through channel recommendations. Overall, we paint a comprehensive picture of user radicalization on YouTube.
Submitted by Angela Meng
Slide 1 of 1
0
Probability of symptoms and critical disease after SARS-CoV-2 infection
Authors:
Poletti, Piero, et al
Published: Jun 2020
We quantified the probability of developing symptoms (respiratory or fever \geq 37.5 {\deg}C) and critical disease (requiring intensive care or resulting in death) of SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects. 5,484 contacts of SARS-CoV-2 index cases detected in Lombardy, Italy were analyzed, and positive subjects were ascertained via nasal swabs and serological assays. 73.9% of all infected individuals aged less than 60 years did not develop symptoms (95% confidence interval: 71.8-75.9%). The risk of symptoms increased with age. 6.6% of infected subjects older than 60 years had critical disease, with males at significantly higher risk.
Retrieved from arxiv
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